Code | Description |
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2D bosonization code | A mapping between a 2D lattice of qubits and a 2D lattice quadratic Hamiltonian of Majorana modes. The original code [1] can be converted via Clifford operations into codes whose distance runs up to \(7\) while preserving the code rate [2]. This family also includes a super-compact fermionic encoding with a qubit-to-fermion ratio of \(1.25\) [2; Table I]. |

2D color code | Color code defined on a two-dimensional trivalent planar graph with three-colorable faces. Each face hosts two stabilizer generators, a Pauli-\(X\) and a Pauli-\(Z\) string acting on all the qubits of the face. |

2D hyperbolic surface code | Hyperbolic surface codes based on a tessellation of a closed 2D manifold with a hyperbolic geometry (i.e., non-Euclidean geometry, e.g., saddle surfaces when defined on a 2D plane). |

2D lattice stabilizer code | Lattice stabilizer code in two spatial dimensions. |

3D bosonization code | A mapping that maps a 3D lattice quadratic Hamiltonian of Majorana modes into a lattice of qubits which realize a \(\mathbb{Z}_2\) gauge theory with a particular Gauss law. |

3D color code | Color code defined on a four-valent four-colorable tiling of 3D space. Logical dimension is determined by the genus of the underlying surface (for closed surfaces) and types of boundaries (for open surfaces). |

3D fermionic surface code | A non-CSS 3D Kitaev surface code that realizes \(\mathbb{Z}_2\) gauge theory with an emergent fermion, i.e., the fermionic-charge bosonic-loop (FcBl) phase [3]. The model can be defined on a cubic lattice in several ways [4; Eq. (D45-46)]. Realizations on other lattices also exist [5,6]. |

3D lattice stabilizer code | Lattice stabilizer code in three spatial dimensions. Qubit codes are conjectured to admit either fracton phases or abelian topological phases that are equivalent to multiple copies of the 3D surface code and/or the 3D fermionic surface code via a local constant-depth Clifford circuit [4]. |

3D surface code | A generalization of the Kitaev surface code defined on a 3D lattice. |

Abelian LP code | An LP code for Abelian group \(G\). The case of \(G\) being a cyclic group is a GB code (a.k.a. a quasi-cyclic LP code) [7; Sec. III.E]. A particular family with \(G=\mathbb{Z}_{\ell}\) yields codes with constant rate and nearly constant distance. |

Abelian TQD stabilizer code | Modular-qudit stabilizer code whose codewords realize 2D modular gapped Abelian topological order. The corresponding anyon theory is defined by an Abelian group and a Type-III group cocycle that can be decomposed as a product of Type-I and Type-II group cocycles; see [8; Sec. IV.A]. Many Abelian TQD code Hamiltonians were originally formulated as commuting-projector models [9]. |

Abelian quantum-double stabilizer code | Modular-qudit stabilizer code whose codewords realize 2D modular gapped Abelian topological order with trivial cocycle. The corresponding anyon theory is defined by an Abelian group. All such codes can be realized by a stack of modular-qudit surface codes because all Abelian groups are Kronecker products of cyclic groups. |

Analog stabilizer code | Also known as a linear, symplectic, or Gaussian stabilizer code. Oscillator-into-oscillator stabilizer code encoding \(k\) logical modes into \(n\) physical modes. An \(((n,k,d))_{\mathbb{R}}\) analog stabilizer code is denoted as \([[n,k,d]]_{\mathbb{R}}\), where \(d\) is the code's distance. |

Analog surface code | An analog CSS version of the Kitaev surface code. |

Approximate secret-sharing code | A family of \( [[n,k,d]]_q \) CSS codes approximately correcting errors on up to \(\lfloor (n-1)/2 \rfloor\) qubits, i.e., with approximate distance approaching the no-cloning bound \(n/2\). Constructed using a non-degenerate CSS code, such as a polynomial quantum code, and a classical authentication scheme. The code can be viewed as an \(t\)-error tolerant secret sharing scheme. Since the code yields a small logical subspace using large registers that contain both classical and quantum information, it is not useful for practical error correction problems, but instead demonstrates the power of approximate quantum error correction. |

Auxiliary qubit mapping (AQM) code | A concatenation of the JW transformation code with a qubit stabilizer code. |

Balanced product (BP) code | Family of CSS quantum codes based on products of two classical codes which share common symmetries. The balanced product can be understood as taking the usual tensor/hypergraph product and then factoring out the symmetries factored. This reduces the overall number of physical qubits \(n\), while, under certain circumstances, leaving the number of encoded qubits \(k\) and the code distance \(d\) invariant. This leads to a more favourable encoding rate \(k/n\) and normalized distance \(d/n\) compared to the tensor/hypergraph product. |

Ball color code | A color code defined on a \(D\)-dimensional colex. This family includes hypercube color codes (color codes defined on balls constructed from hyperoctahedra) and 3D ball color codes (color codes defined on duals of certain Archimedean solids). |

Ball-Verstraete-Cirac (BVC) code | A 2D fermion-into-qubit encoding that builds upon the JW transformation encoding by eliminating the weight-\(O(n)\) \(X\)-type string at the expense introducing additional qubits. See [2; Sec. IV.B] for details. |

Bicycle code | A CSS code whose stabilizer generator matrix blocks are \(H_{X}=H_{Z}=(A|A^T)\), where \(A\) is a circulant matrix. The fact that \(A\) commutes with its transpose ensures that the CSS condition is satisfied. Bicycle codes are the first QLDPC codes. |

Bivariate bicycle (BB) code | One of several Abelian 2BGA codes which admit time-optimal syndrome measurement circuits that can be implemented in a two-layer architecture, a generalization of the square-lattice architecture optimal for the surface codes. |

Bosonic stabilizer code | Also known as a continuous-variable (CV) stabilizer code. Bosonic code whose codespace is defined as the common \(+1\) eigenspace of a group of mutually commuting displacement operators. Displacements form the stabilizers of the code, and have continuous eigenvalues, in contrast with the discrete set of eigenvalues of qubit stabilizers. As a result, exact codewords are non-normalizable, so approximate constructions have to be considered. |

Bosonization code | A mapping that maps a \(D\)-dimensional lattice quadratic Hamiltonian of Majorana modes into a lattice of qubits. The resulting qubit code can realize various topological phases, depending on the initial Majorana-mode Hamiltonian and its symmetries. |

Bravyi-Kitaev superfast (BKSF) code | An single error-detecting fermion-into-qubit encoding defined on 2D qubit lattice whose stabilizers are associated with loops in the lattice. The code can be generalized to a single error-correcting code (i.e., with distance three) on graphs of degree \(\geq 6\) [10]. |

Bravyi-Kitaev transformation (BKT) code | A fermion-into-qubit encoding that maps Majorana operators into Pauli strings of weight \(\lceil \log (n+1) \rceil\). The code can be reformulated in terms of Fenwick trees [11], and the Pauli-string weight can be further optimized to yield the segmented Bravyi-Kitaev (SBK) transformation code [12]. |

Brown-Fawzi random Clifford-circuit code | An \([[n,k]]\) stabilizer code whose encoder is a random Clifford circuit of depth \(O(\log^3 n)\). |

CPC code | A qubit stabilizer code for which two binary linear codes are used to directly construct encoding and decoding circuits against \(X\)- and \(Z\)-type errors, respectively, via ZX calculus [13,14]. |

Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) stabilizer code | A stabilizer code admitting a set of stabilizer generators that are either \(Z\)-type or \(X\)-type operators. The two sets of stabilizer generators can often, but not always, be related to parts of a chain complex over the appropriate ring or field. |

Camara-Ollivier-Tillich code | A Hermitian qubit QLDPC code whose stabilizer generator matrix is constructed using two nested subgroups of \(GF(4)^n\). |

Chamon model code | A foliated type-I fracton non-CSS code defined on a cubic lattice using one weight-eight stabilizer generator acting on the eight vertices of each cube in the lattice [4; Eq. (D38)]. |

Checkerboard model code | A foliated type-I fracton code defined on a cubic lattice that admits weight-eight \(X\)- and \(Z\)-type stabilizer generators on the eight vertices of each cube in the lattice. |

Chiral semion Walker-Wang model code | A 3D lattice modular-qudit stabilizer code with qudit dimension \(q=4\) whose low-energy excitations on boundaries realize the chiral semion topological order. The model admits 2D chiral semion topological order at one of its surfaces [15,16]. The corresponding phase can also be realized via a non-stabilizer Hamiltonian [17]. |

Classical-product code | A CSS code constructed by separately constructing the \(X\) and \(Z\) check matrices using product constructions from classical codes. A particular \([[512,174,8]]\) code performed well [18] against erasure and depolarizing noise when compared to other notable CSS codes, such as the asymptotically good quantum Tanner codes. |

Clifford-deformed surface code (CDSC) | A generally non-CSS derivative of the surface code defined by applying a constant-depth Clifford circuit to the original (CSS) surface code. Unlike the surface code, CDSCs include codes whose thresholds and subthreshold performance are enhanced under noise biased towards dephasing. Examples of CDSCs include the XY code, XZZX code, and random CDSCs. |

Cluster-state code | A code based on a cluster state and often used in measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) [19] (a.k.a. one-way quantum processing), which substitutes the temporal dimension necessary for decoding a conventional code with a spatial dimension. This is done by encoding the computation into the features of the cluster state''s graph. |

Color code | Member of a family of qubit CSS codes defined on a \(D\)-dimensional graph which satisfies two properties: (1) the graph is a homogeneous simplicial \(D\)-complex obtained as a triangulation of the interior of a \(D\)-simplex, and (2) the graph is \(D+1\)-colorable. Qubits are placed on the \(D\)-simplices and generators are supported on suitable simplices [20–22]. Admissible graphs can be obtained via a fattening procedure [23]; see also a construction based on the more general quantum pin codes [24]. |

Concatenated Steane code | A member of the family of \([[7^m,1,3^m]]\) CSS codes, each of which is a recursive level-\(m\) concatenatenation of the Steane code. This family is one of the first to admit a concatenated threshold [25–29]. |

Crystalline-circuit qubit code | Code dynamically generated by unitary Clifford circuits defined on a lattice with some crystalline symmetry. A notable example is the circuit defined on a rotated square lattice with vertices corresponding to iSWAP gates and edges decorated by \(R_X[\pi/2]\), a single-qubit rotation by \(\pi/2\) around the \(X\)-axis. This circuit is invariant under space-time translations by a unit cell \((T, a)\) and all transformations of the square lattice point group \(D_4\). |

Cubic honeycomb color code | 3D color code defined on a four-colorable bitruncated cubic honeycomb uniform tiling. |

Derby-Klassen (DK) code | A fermion-into-qubit code defined on regular tilings with maximum degree 4 whose stabilizers are associated with loops in the tiling. The code outperforms several other encodings in terms of encoding rate [30; Table I]. It has been extended for models with several modes per site [31]. |

Dinur-Hsieh-Lin-Vidick (DHLV) code | A family of asymptotically good QLDPC codes which are related to expander LP codes in that the roles of the check operators and physical qubits are exchanged. |

Dinur-Lin-Vidick (DLV) code | Member of a family of quantum locally testable codes constructed using cubical chain complexes, which are \(t\)-order extensions of the complexes underlying expander codes (\(t=1\)) and expander lifted-product codes (\(t=2\)). |

Distance-balanced code | Galois-qudit CSS code constructed from a CSS code and a classical code using a distance-balancing procedure based on a generalized homological product. The initial code is said to be unbalanced, i.e., tailored to noise biased toward either bit- or phase-flip errors, and the procedure can result in a code that is treats both types of errors on a more equal footing. The original distance-balancing procedure [32], later generalized [33; Thm. 4.2], can yield QLDPC codes [32; Thm. 1]. |

Double-semion stabilizer code | A 2D lattice modular-qudit stabilizer code with qudit dimension \(q=4\) that is characterized by the 2D double semion topological phase. The code can be obtained from the \(\mathbb{Z}_4\) surface code by condensing the anyon \(e^2 m^2\) [34]. Originally formulated as the ground-state space of a Hamiltonian with non-commuting terms [35], which can be extended to other spatial dimensions [36], and later as a commuting-projector code [9,37]. |

Expander LP code | Family of \(G\)-lifted product codes constructed using two random classical Tanner codes defined on expander graphs [38]. For certain parameters, this construction yields the first asymptotically good QLDPC codes. Classical codes resulting from this construction are one of the first two families of \(c^3\)-LTCs. |

Fermion-into-qubit code | Qubit stabilizer code encoding a logical fermionic Hilbert space into a physical space of \(n\) qubits. Such codes are primarily intended for simulating fermionic systems on quantum computers, and some of them have error-detecting, correcting, and transmuting properties. |

Fiber-bundle code | A CSS code constructed by combining one code as the base and another as the fiber of a fiber bundle. In particular, taking a random LDPC code as the base and a cyclic repetition code as the fiber yields, after distance balancing, a QLDPC code with distance \(\Omega(n^{3/5}\text{polylog}(n))\) and rate \(\Omega(n^{-2/5}\text{polylog}(n))\) is obtained. |

Fibonacci fractal spin-liquid code | A fractal type-I fracton CSS code defined on a cubic lattice [4; Eq. (D23)]. |

Finite-geometry (FG) QLDPC code | CSS code constructed from linear binary codes whose parity-check or generator matrices are incidence matrices of points, hyperplanes, or other structures in finite geometries. These codes can be interpreted as quantum versions of FG-LDPC codes, but some of them [39,40] are not strictly QLDPC. |

Five-qubit perfect code | Five-qubit cyclic stabilizer code that is the smallest qubit stabilizer code to correct a single-qubit error. |

Five-rotor code | Extension of the five-qubit stabilizer code to the integer alphabet, i.e., the angular momentum states of a planar rotor. The code is \(U(1)\)-covariant and ideal codewords are not normalizable. |

Folded quantum Reed-Solomon (FQRS) code | CSS code on \(q^m\)-dimensional Galois-qudits that is constructed from folded Reed-Solomon (FRS) codes via the Galois-qudit CSS construction. This code is used to construct Singleton-bound approaching approximate quantum codes. |

Four-rotor code | \([[4,2,2]]_{\mathbb Z}\) CSS rotor code that is an extension of the four-qubit code to the integer alphabet, i.e., the angular momentum states of a planar rotor. |

Fractal surface code | Kitaev surface code on a fractal geometry, which is obtained by removing qubits from the surface code on a cubic lattice. |

Fracton stabilizer code | A 3D translationally invariant modular-qudit stabilizer code whose codewords make up the ground-state space of a Hamiltonian in a fracton phase. Unlike topological phases, whose excitations can move in any direction, fracton phases are characterized by excitations whose movement is restricted. |

Freedman-Meyer-Luo code | Hyperbolic surface code constructed using cellulation of a Riemannian Manifold \(M\) exhibiting systolic freedom [41]. Codes derived from such manifolds can achieve distances scaling better than \(\sqrt{n}\), something that is impossible using closed 2D surfaces or 2D surfaces with boundaries [42]. Improved codes are obtained by studying a weak family of Riemann metrics on closed 4-dimensional manifolds \(S^2\otimes S^2\) with the \(Z_2\)-homology. |

Frobenius code | A cyclic prime-qudit stabilizer code whose length \(n\) divides \(p^t + 1\) for some positive integer \(t\). |

Fusion-based quantum computing (FBQC) code | Code whose codewords are resource states used in an FBQC scheme. Related to a cluster state via Hadamard transformations. |

GKP cluster-state code | Multi-mode code encoding logical qubits into a cluster-state stabilizer code concatenated with a single-mode GKP code. Provides a way to perform a continuous-variable (CV) analogue of fault-tolerant MBQC. |

Galois-qudit BCH code | True Galois-qudit stabilizer code constructed from BCH codes via either the Hermitian construction or the Galois-qudit CSS construction. Parameters can be improved by applying Steane enlargement [43]. |

Galois-qudit CSS code | An \([[n,k,d]]_q \) Galois-qudit true stabilizer code admitting a set of stabilizer generators that are either \(Z\)-type or \(X\)-type Galois-qudit Pauli strings. Codes can be defined from chain complexes over \(GF(q)\) via an extension of qubit CSS-to-homology correspondence to Galois qudits. |

Galois-qudit GRS code | True \(q\)-Galois-qudit stabilizer code constructed from generalized Reed-Solomon (GRS) codes via either the Hermitian construction [44–46] or the Galois-qudit CSS construction [47,48]. |

Galois-qudit RS code | An \([[n,k,n-k+1]]_q\) (with \(q>n\)) Galois-qudit CSS code constructed using two Reed-Solomon codes over \(GF(q)\). |

Galois-qudit quantum RM code | True \(q\)-Galois-qudit stabilizer code constructed from generalized Reed-Muller (GRM) codes via the Hermitian construction, the Galois-qudit CSS construction, or directly from their parity-check matrices [49; Sec. 4.2]. |

Galois-qudit stabilizer code | An \(((n,K,d))_q\) Galois-qudit code whose logical subspace is the joint eigenspace of commuting Galois-qudit Pauli operators forming the code's stabilizer group \(\mathsf{S}\). Traditionally, the logical subspace is the joint \(+1\) eigenspace, and the stabilizer group does not contain \(e^{i \phi} I\) for any \(\phi \neq 0\). The distance \(d\) is the minimum weight of a Galois-qudit Pauli string that implements a nontrivial logical operation in the code. |

Galois-qudit topological code | Abelian topological code, such as a 2D surface [50,51] or 2D color [52] code, constructed on lattices of Galois qudits. |

Generalized Shor code | Qubit CSS code constructed by concatenating two classical codes in a way the generalizes the Shor and quantum parity codes. |

Generalized bicycle (GB) code | A quasi-cyclic Galois-qudit CSS code constructed using a generalized version of the bicycle ansatz [53] from a pair of equivalent index-two quasi-cyclic linear codes. Equivalently, the codes can constructed via the lifted-product construction for \(G\) being a cyclic group [7; Sec. III.E]. |

Generalized homological-product CSS code | CSS code whose properties are determined from an underlying chain complex, which often consists of some type of product of other chain complexes. |

Generalized homological-product code | Stabilizer code whose properties are determined from an underlying chain complex, which often consists of some type of product of other chain complexes. The Qubit CSS-to-homology correspondence yields an interpretation of codes in terms of manifolds, thus allowing for the use of various products from topology in constructing codes. |

Generalized homological-product qubit CSS code | Qubit CSS code whose properties are determined from an underlying chain complex, which often consists of some type of product of other chain complexes. |

Generalized quantum Tanner code | An extension of quantum Tanner codes to codes constructed from two commuting regular graphs with the same vertex set. This allows for code construction using finite sets and Schreier graphs, yielding a broader family of square complexes. |

Generalized quantum divisible code | A level-\(\nu\) generalized quantum divisible code is a CSS code whose \(X\)-type stabilizers, in the symplectic representation, have zero norm and form a \((\nu,t)\)-null matrix (defined below) with respect to some odd-integer vector \(t\) [54; Def. V.1]. Such codes admit gates at the \(\nu\)th level of the Clifford hierarchy. Such codes can also be level-lifted [54; Theorem V.6], \(\nu\to\nu+1\), which recursively yields towers of generalized divisible codes from a particular ground code. |

Golden code | Variant of the Guth-Lubotzky hyperbolic surface code that uses regular tessellations for 4-dimensional hyperbolic space. |

Good QLDPC code | Also called asymptotically good QLDPC codes. A family of QLDPC codes \([[n_i,k_i,d_i]]\) whose asymptotic rate \(\lim_{i\to\infty} k_i/n_i\) and asymptotic distance \(\lim_{i\to\infty} d_i/n_i\) are both positive. |

Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill (GKP) code | Quantum lattice code for a non-degenerate lattice, thereby admitting a finite-dimensional logical subspace. Codes on \(n\) modes can be constructed from lattices with \(2n\)-dimensional full-rank Gram matrices \(A\). |

Graph quantum code | A stabilizer code on tensor products of \(G\)-valued qudits for Abelian \(G\) whose encoding isometry is defined using a graph [55; Eqs. (4-5)]. An analytical form of the codewords exists in terms of the adjacency matrix of the graph and bicharacters of the Abelian group [55]; see [56; Eq. (1)]. A graph quantum code for \(G=\mathbb{Z}_2\) contains a cluster state as one of its codewords and reduces to a cluster state when its logical dimension is one [57]. |

Guth-Lubotzky code | Hyperbolic surface code based on cellulations of certain four-dimensional manifolds. The manifolds are shown to have good homology and systolic properties for the purposes of code construction, with corresponding codes exhibiting linear rate. |

Haah cubic code (CC) | A 3D lattice stabilizer code on a length-\(L\) cubic lattice with one or two qubits per site. Admits two types of stabilizer generators with support on each cube of the lattice. In the non-CSS case, these two are related by spatial inversion. For CSS codes, we require that the product of all corner operators is the identity. We lastly require that there are no non-trival string operators, meaning that single-site operators are a phase, and any period one logical operator \(l \in \mathsf{S}^{\perp}\) is just a phase. |

Hemicubic code | Homological code constructed out of cubes in high dimensions. The hemicubic code family has asymptotically diminishing soundness that scales as order \(\Omega(1/\log n)\), locality of stabilizer generators scaling as order \(O(\log n)\), and distance \(\Theta(\sqrt{n})\). |

Hermitian Galois-qudit code | An \([[n,k,d]]_q\) true Galois-qudit stabilizer code constructed from a Hermitian self-orthogonal linear code over \(GF(q^2)\) using the one-to-one correspondence between the Galois-qudit Pauli matrices and elements of the Galois field \(GF(q^2)\). |

Hermitian qubit code | An \([[n,k,d]]\) stabilizer code constructed from a Hermitian self-orthogonal linear quaternary code using the one-to-one correspondence between the four Pauli matrices \(\{I,X,Y,Z\}\) and the four elements \(\{0,1,\alpha^2,\alpha\}\) of the quaternary field \(GF(4)\). |

Hexagonal GKP code | Single-mode GKP qudit-into-oscillator code based on the hexagonal lattice. Offers the best error correction against displacement noise in a single mode due to the optimal packing of the underlying lattice. |

Hierarchical code | Member of a family of \([[n,k,d]]\) qubit stabilizer codes resulting from a concatenation of a constant-rate QLDPC code with a rotated surface code. Concatenation allows for syndrome extraction to be performed on a 2D geometry while maintining a threshold at the expense of a logarithmically vanishing rate. The growing syndrome extraction circuit depth allows known bounds in the literature to be weakened [58,59]. |

High-dimensional expander (HDX) code | CSS code constructed from a Ramanujan quantum code and an asymptotically good classical LDPC code using distance balancing. Ramanujan quantum codes are defined using Ramanujan complexes which are simplicial complexes that generalise Ramanujan graphs [60,61]. Combining the quantum code obtained from a Ramanujan complex and a good classical LDPC code, which can be thought of as coming from a 1-dimensional chain complex, yields a new quantum code that is defined on a 2-dimensional chain complex. This 2-dimensional chain complex is obtained by the co-complex of the product of the 2 co-complexes. The length, dimension and distance of the new quantum code depend on the input codes. |

Homological bosonic code | An \([[n,1]]_{\mathbb{R}}\) analog CSS code defined using homological structres associated with an \(n-1\) simplex. Relevant to the study of spacetime replication of quantum information [62]. |

Homological code | CSS-type extenstion of the Kitaev surface code to arbitrary manifolds. The version on a Euclidean manifold of some fixed dimension is called the \(D\)-dimensional surface or \(D\)-dimensional toric code. |

Homological product code | CSS code formulated using the tensor product of two chain complexes (see Qubit CSS-to-homology correspondence). |

Homological rotor code | A homological quantum rotor code is an extension of analog stabilizer codes to rotors. The code is stabilized by a continuous group of rotor \(X\)-type and \(Z\)-type generalized Pauli operators. Codes are formulated using an extension of the qubit CSS-to-homology correspondence to rotors. The homology group of the logical operators has a torsion component because the chain complexes are defined over the ring of integers, which yields codes with finite logical dimension, i.e., encoding logical qudits instead of only logical rotors. Such finite-dimensional encodings are not possible with analog stabilizer codes. |

Honeycomb (6.6.6) color code | Triangular color code defined on a patch of the 6.6.6 (honeycomb) tiling. |

Hsieh-Halasz (HH) code | Member of one of two families of fracton codes, named HH-I and HH-II, defined on a cubic lattice with two qubits per site. HH-I (HH-II) is a CSS (non-CSS) stabilizer code family, with the former identified as a foliated type-I fracton code [4]. |

Hsieh-Halasz-Balents (HHB) code | Member of one of two families of fracton codes, named HHB model A and B, defined on a cubic lattice with two qubits per site. Both are expected to be foliated type-I fracton codes [4; Eqs. (D42-D43)]. |

Hyperbolic color code | An extension of the color code construction to hyperbolic manifolds. As opposed to there being only three types of uniform three-valent and three-colorable lattice tilings in the 2D Euclidean plane, there is an infinite number of admissible hyperbolic tilings in the 2D hyperbolic plane [63]. Certain double covers of hyperbolic tilings also yield admissible tilings [64]. Other admissible hyperbolic tilings can be obtained via a fattening procedure [23]; see also a construction based on the more general quantum pin codes [24]. |

Hyperbolic surface code | An extension of the Kitaev surface code construction to hyperbolic manifolds. Given a cellulation of a manifold, qubits are put on \(i\)-dimensional faces, \(X\)-type stabilizers are associated with \((i-1)\)-faces, while \(Z\)-type stabilizers are associated with \(i+1\)-faces. |

Hypergraph product (HGP) code | A member of a family of CSS codes whose stabilizer generator matrix is obtained from a hypergraph product of two classical linear codes. Codes from hypergraph products in higher dimension are called higher-dimensional HGP codes [65]. |

Hypersphere product code | Homological code based on products of hyperspheres. The hypersphere product code family has asymptotically diminishing soundness that scales as order \(O(1/\log (n)^2)\), locality of stabilizer generators scaling as order \(O(\log n/ \log\log n)\), and distance \(\Theta(\sqrt{n})\). |

Jordan-Wigner transformation code | A mapping between qubit Pauli strings and Majorana operators that can be thought of as a trivial \([[n,n,1]]\) code. The mapping is best described as converting a chain of \(n\) qubits into a chain of \(2n\) Majorana modes (i.e., \(n\) fermionic modes). It maps Majorana operators into Pauli strings of weight \(O(n)\). |

Kitaev chain code | An \([[n,1,1]]_{f}\) Majorana stabilizer code forming the ground-state of the Kitaev Majorana chain (a.k.a. Kitaev Majorana wire) in its fermionic topological phase, which is unitarily equivalent to the 1D quantum Ising model in the symmetry-breaking phase via the Jordan-Wigner transformation. The code is usually defined using the algebra of two anti-commuting Majorana operators called Majorana zero modes (MZMs) or Majorana edge modes (MEMs). |

Kitaev current-mirror qubit code | Member of the family of \([[2n,(0,2),(2,n)]]_{\mathbb{Z}}\) homological rotor codes storing a logical qubit on a thin Möbius strip. The ideal code can be obtained from a Josephson-junction [66] system [67]. |

Kitaev surface code | A family of Abelian topological CSS stabilizer codes whose generators are few-body \(X\)-type and \(Z\)-type Pauli strings associated to the stars and plaquettes, respectively, of a cellulation of a two-dimensional surface (with a qubit located at each edge of the cellulation). Codewords correspond to ground states of the surface code Hamiltonian, and error operators create or annihilate pairs of anyonic charges or vortices. |

La-cross code | Code constructed using the hypergraph product of two copies of a cyclic LDPC code. The construction uses cyclic LDPC codes with generating polynomials \(1+x+x^k\) for some \(k\). Using a length-\(n\) seed code yields an \([[2n^2,2k^2]]\) family for periodic boundary conditions and an \([[(n-k)^2+n^2,k^2]]\) family for open boundary conditions. |

Lattice stabilizer code | A geometrically local modular-qudit or Galois-qudit stabilizer code with qudits organized on a lattice modeled by the additive group \(\mathbb{Z}^D\) for spatial dimension \(D\). On an infinite lattice, its stabilizer group is generated by few-site Pauli operators and their translations, in which case the code is called translationally invariant stabilizer code. Boundary conditions have to be imposed on the lattice in order to obtain finite-dimensional versions. Lattice defects and boundaries between different codes can also be introduced. |

Layer code | Member of a family of 3D lattice CSS codes with stabilizer generator weights \(\leq 6\) that are obtained by coupling layers of 2D surface code according to the Tanner graph of a QLDPC code. Geometric locality is maintained because, instead of being concatenated, each pair of parallel surface-code squares are fused (or quasi-concatenated) with perpendicular surface-code squares via lattice surgery. |

Lift-connected surface (LCS) code | Member of one of several families of lifted-product codes that consist of sparsely interconnected stacks of surface codes. |

Lifted-product (LP) code | Code that utilizes the notion of a lifted product in its construction. Lifted products of certain classical Tanner codes are the first (asymptotically) good QLDPC codes. |

Long-range enhanced surface code (LRESC) | Code constructed using the hypergraph product of two copies of a concatenated LDPC-repetition seed code. This family interpolates between surface codes and hypergraph codes since the hypergraph product of two repetition codes yields the planar surface code. The construction uses small \([3,2,2]\) and \([6,2,4]\) LDPC codes concatenated with \([4,1,4]\) and \([2,1,2]\) repetition codes, respectively. An example using a \([5,2,3]\) code is also presented. |

Loop toric code | A generalization of the Kitaev surface code defined on a 4D lattice. The code serves as a self-correcting quantum memory [68,69]. |

Lossless expander balanced-product code | QLDPC code constructed by taking the balanced product of lossless expander graphs. Using one part of a quantum-code chain complex constructed with one-sided loss expanders [70] yields a \(c^3\)-LTC [71]. Using two-sided expanders, which are only conjectured to exist, yields an asymptotically good QLDPC code family [72]. |

Majorana box qubit | An \([[n,1,2]]_{f}\) Majorana stabilizer code forming the even-fermion-parity ground-state subspace of two parallel Kitaev Majorana chains in their fermionic topological phase. The \([[2,1,2]]_{f}\) version is called the tetron Majorana code. An \([[3,2,2]]_{f}\) extension using three Kitaev chains and housing two logical qubits of the same parity is called the hexon Majorana code. Similarly, octon, decon, and dodecon are codes defined by the positive-parity subspace of \(4\), \(5\), and \(6\) fermionic modes, respectively [73]. |

Majorana checkerboard code | A Majorana analogue of the X-cube model defined on a cubic lattice. The code admits weight-eight Majorana stabilizer generators on the eight vertices of each cube of a checkerboard sublattice. |

Majorana color code | Majorana analogue of the color code defined on a 2D tricolorable lattice and constructed out of Majorana box qubit codes placed on patches of the lattice. |

Majorana loop stabilizer code (MLSC) | An single error-correcting fermion-into-qubit encoding defined on a 2D qubit lattice whose stabilizers are associated with loops in the lattice. |

Majorana stabilizer code | A stabilizer code whose stabilizers are products of an even number of Majorana fermion operators, analogous to Pauli strings for a traditional stabilizer code and referred to as Majorana stabilizers. The codespace is the mutual \(+1\) eigenspace of all Majorana stabilizers. In such systems, Majorana fermions may either be considered individually or paired into creation and annihilation operators for fermionic modes. Codes can be denoted as \([[n,k,d]]_{f}\) [74], where \(n\) is the number of fermionic modes (equivalently, \(2n\) Majorana modes). |

Majorana surface code | Majorana analogue of the surface code defined on a 2D lattice and constructed out of Majorana box qubit codes placed on patches of the lattice. |

Matching code | Member of a class of qubit stabilizer codes based on the Abelian phase of the Kitaev honeycomb model. |

Modular-qudit CSS code | An \(((n,K,d))_q\) modular-qudit stabilizer code admitting a set of stabilizer generators that are either \(Z\)-type or \(X\)-type Pauli strings. Codes can be defined from two classical codes and/or chain complexes over the ring \(\mathbb{Z}_q\) via an extension of qubit CSS-to-homology correspondence to modular qudits. The homology group of the logical operators has a torsion component because the chain complexes are defined over a ring, which yields codes whose logical dimension is not a power of \(q\). |

Modular-qudit GKP code | Modular-qudit analogue of the GKP code. Encodes a qudit into a larger qudit and protects against Pauli shifts up to some maximum value. |

Modular-qudit cluster-state code | A code based on a modular-qudit cluster state. |

Modular-qudit color code | An extension of color codes on lattices to modular qudits. Codes are defined analogous to qubit color codes on suitable lattices of any spatial dimension, but a directionality is required in order to make the modular-qudit stabilizer commute. This can be done by puncturing a hyperspherical lattice [75] or constructing a star-bipartition; see [76; Sec. III]. Logical dimension is determined by the genus of the underlying surface (for closed surfaces), types of boundaries (for open surfaces), and/or any twist defects present. |

Modular-qudit stabilizer code | An \(((n,K,d))_q\) modular-qudit code whose logical subspace is the joint eigenspace of commuting qudit Pauli operators forming the code's stabilizer group \(\mathsf{S}\). Traditionally, the logical subspace is the joint \(+1\) eigenspace, and the stabilizer group does not contain \(e^{i \phi} I\) for any \(\phi \neq 0\). The distance \(d\) is the minimum weight of a qudit Pauli string that implements a nontrivial logical operation in the code. |

Modular-qudit surface code | Extension of the surface code to prime-dimensional [50,77] and more general modular qudits [78]. Stabilizer generators are few-body \(X\)-type and \(Z\)-type Pauli strings associated to the stars and plaquettes, respectively, of a tessellation of a two-dimensional surface. Since qudits have more than one \(X\) and \(Z\)-type operator, various sets of stabilizer generators can be defined. Ground-state degeneracy and the associated phase depends on the qudit dimension and the stabilizer generators. |

NTRU-GKP code | Multi-mode GKP code whose underlying lattice is utilized in variations of the NTRU cryptosystem [79]. Randomized constructions yield constant-rate GKP code families whose largest decodable displacement length scales as \(O(\sqrt{n})\) with high probability. |

Oscillator-into-oscillator GKP code | Multimode GKP code with an infinite-dimensional logical space. Can be obtained by considering an \(n\)-mode GKP code with a finite-dimensional logical space, removing stabilizers such that the logical space becomes infinite dimensional, and applying a Gaussian circuit. |

Pastawski-Yoshida-Harlow-Preskill (HaPPY) code | Also known as a hyperbolic pentagon code (HyPeC). Holographic code constructed out of a network of hexagonal perfect tensors that tesselates hyperbolic space. Physical qubits are associated with uncontracted tensor legs at the boundary of the tesselation, while logical qubits are associated with uncontracted legs in the bulk. The code serves as a minimal model for several aspects of the AdS/CFT holographic duality and potentially a dF/CFT duality [80]. |

Prime-qudit RM code | Modular-qudit stabilizer code constructed from generalized Reed-Muller (GRM) codes or their duals via the modular-qudit CSS construction. An odd-prime-qudit CSS code family constructed from first-order punctured GRM codes transversally implements a diagonal gate at any level of the qudit Clifford hierarchy [81]. |

Prime-qudit RS code | Prime-qudit CSS code constructed using two Reed-Solomon codes. |

Prime-qudit triorthogonal code | An \(m \times n\) matrix over \(GF(p)=\mathbb{Z}_p\) is triorthogonal if its rows \(r_1, \ldots, r_m\) satisfy \(|r_i \cdot r_j| = 0\) and \(|r_i \cdot r_j \cdot r_k| = 0\) modulo \(p\), where addition and multiplication are done on \(GF(p)\). The triorthogonal prime-qudit CSS code associated with the matrix is constructed by mapping non-zero entries in self-orhogonal rows to \(X\) operators, and \(Z\) operators for each row in the orthogonal complement [82,83]. |

Projective-plane surface code | A family of Kitaev surface codes on the non-orientable 2-dimensional compact manifold \(\mathbb{R}P^2\) (in contrast to a genus-\(g\) surface). Whereas genus-\(g\) surface codes require \(2g\) logical qubits, qubit codes on \(\mathbb{R}P^2\) are made from a single logical qubit. |

Quantum Golay code | A \([[23, 1, 7]]\) self-dual CSS code with eleven stabilizer generators of each type, and with each generator being weight eight. |

Quantum Goppa code | Also known as a quantum AG code. Binary quantum Goppa codes are a family of \( [[n,k,d]]_q \) CSS codes for \( q=2^m \), generated using classical Goppa codes. |

Quantum Reed-Muller code | A CSS code formed from a classical Reed-Muller (RM) code or its punctured/shortened versions. Such codes often admit transversal logical gates in the Clifford hierarchy. |

Quantum Tamo-Barg (QTB) code | A member of a family of Galois-qudit CSS codes whose underlying classical codes consist of Tamo-Barg codes together with specific low-weight codewords. Folded versions of QTB codes, or FQTB codes, defined on qudits whose dimension depends on \(n\) yield explicit examples of QLRCs of arbitrary locality \(r\) [84; Thm. 2]. |

Quantum Tanner code | Member of a family of QLDPC codes based on two compatible classical Tanner codes defined on a two-dimensional Cayley complex, a complex constructed from Cayley graphs of groups. For certain choices of codes and complex, the resulting codes have asymptotically good parameters. This construction has been generalized to Schreier graphs [85]. |

Quantum check-product code | CSS code constructed from an extension of check product (between two classical codes) to a product between a classical and a quantum code. |

Quantum convolutional code | One-dimensional translationally invariant qubit stabilizer code whose whose stabilizer group can be partitioned into constant-size subsets of constant support and of constant overlap between neighboring sets. Initially formulated as a quantum analogue of convolutional codes, which were designed to protect a continuous and never-ending stream of information. Precise formulations sometimes begin with a finite-dimensional lattice, with the intent to take the thermodynamic limit; logical dimension can be infinite as well. |

Quantum data-syndrome (QDS) code | Stabilizer code designed to correct both data qubit errors and syndrome measurement errors simultaneously due to extra redundancy in its stabilizer generators. |

Quantum divisible code | A level-\(\nu\) quantum divisible code is a CSS code whose \(X\)-type stabilizers form a \(\nu\)-even linear binary code in the symplectic representation and which admits a transversal gate at the \(\nu\)th level of the Clifford hierarchy. A CSS code is doubly-even (triply-even) if all \(X\)-type stabilizer generators have weight divisible by four (eight), i.e., if they form a doubly-even (triply-even) linear binary code. Doubly-even codes can yield a transversal \(S\) gate, while triply-even codes yield a transversal \(T\) gate for odd \(n\) [86]. |

Quantum duadic code | True Galois-qudit stabilizer code constructed from \(q\)-ary duadic codes via the Hermitian construction or the Galois-qudit CSS construction. |

Quantum expander code | CSS codes constructed from a hypergraph product of bipartite expander graphs [38] with bounded left and right vertex degrees. For every bipartite graph there is an associated matrix (the parity check matrix) with columns indexed by the left vertices, rows indexed by the right vertices, and 1 entries whenever a left and right vertex are connected. This matrix can serve as the parity check matrix of a classical code. Two bipartite expander graphs can be used to construct a quantum CSS code (the quantum expander code) by using the parity check matrix of one as \(X\) checks, and the parity check matrix of the other as \(Z\) checks. |

Quantum lattice code | Bosonic stabilizer code on \(n\) bosonic modes whose stabilizer group is an infinite countable group of oscillator displacement operators which implement lattice translations in phase space. |

Quantum low-density parity-check (QLDPC) code | Member of a family of \([[n,k,d]]\) modular-qudit or Galois-qudit stabilizer codes for which the number of sites participating in each stabilizer generator and the number of stabilizer generators that each site participates in are both bounded by a constant \(w\) as \(n\to\infty\); can be denoted by \([[n,k,d,w]]\). Sometimes, the two parameters are explicitly stated: each site of an an \((l,w)\)-regular QLDPC code is acted on by \(\leq l\) generators of weight \(\leq w\). QLDPC codes can correct many stochastic errors far beyond the distance, which may not scale as favorably. Together with more accurate, faster, and easier-to-parallelize measurements than those of general stabilizer codes, this property makes QLDPC codes interesting in practice. |

Quantum multi-dimensional parity-check (QMDPC) code | High-rate low-distance CSS code whose qubits lie on a \(D\)-dimensional rectangle, with \(X\)-type stabilizer generators defined on each \(D-1\)-dimensional rectangle. The \(Z\)-type stabilizer generators are defined via permutations in order to commute with the \(X\)-type generators. |

Quantum parity code (QPC) | A \([[m_1 m_2,1,\min(m_1,m_2)]]\) CSS code family obtained from concatenating an \(m_1\)-qubit phase-flip repetition code with an \(m_2\)-qubit bit-flip repetition code. |

Quantum pin code | Member of a family of CSS codes that encompasses both quantum Reed-Muller and color codes and that is defined using intersections of pinned sets. |

Quantum polar code | Entanglement-assisted CSS code utilized in a quantum polar coding scheme producing entangled pairs of qubits between sender and receiver. In such a scheme, the amplitude and phase information of a quantum state is handled in complementary fashion [87] using an encoding based on classical polar codes. Variants of the initial scheme have been developed for degradable channels [88] and extended to arbitrary channels [89]. |

Quantum quadratic-residue (QR) code | Galois-qudit \([[n,1]]_q\) pure CSS code constructed from a dual-containing QR code via the Galois-qudit CSS construction. For \(q\) not divisible by \(n\), its distance satisfies \(d^2-d+1 \geq n\) when \(n \equiv 3\) modulo 4 [90; Thm. 40] and \(d \geq \sqrt{n}\) when \(n\equiv 1\) modulo 4 [90; Thm. 41]. |

Quantum repetition code | Encodes \(1\) qubit into \(n\) qubits according to \(|0\rangle\to|\phi_0\rangle^{\otimes n}\) and \(|1\rangle\to|\phi_1\rangle^{\otimes n}\). Also known as a bit-flip code when \(|\phi_i\rangle = |i\rangle\), and a phase-flip code when \(|\phi_0\rangle = |+\rangle\) and \(|\phi_1\rangle = |-\rangle\). |

Quantum spatially coupled (SC-QLDPC) code | QLDPC code whose stabilizer generator matrix resembles the parity-check matrix of SC-LDPC codes. There exist CSS [91] and stabilizer constructions [92]. In either case, the stabilizer generator matrix is constructed by "spatially" coupling sub-matrix blocks in chain-like fashion (or, more generally, in grid-like fashion) to yield a band matrix. The sub-matrix blocks have to satisfy certain conditions amongst themselves so that the resulting band matrix is a stabilizer generator matrix. Matrices corresponding to translationally invariant chains are called time-variant, and otherwise are called time-invariant. |

Quantum turbo code | A quantum version of the turbo code, obtained from an interleaved serial quantum concatenation [93; Def. 30] of quantum convolutional codes. |

Quantum twisted code | Hermitian code arising constructed from twisted BCH codes. |

Qubit BCH code | Qubit stabilizer code constructed from a self-orthogonal binary BCH code via the CSS construction, from a Hermitian self-orthogonal quaternary BCH code via the Hermitian construction, or by taking a Euclidean self-orthogonal BCH code over \(GF(2^m)\), converting it to a binary code, and applying the CSS construction. |

Qubit CSS code | An \([[n,k,d]]\) stabilizer code admitting a set of stabilizer generators that are either \(Z\)-type or \(X\)-type Pauli strings. Codes can be defined from two classical codes and/or chain complexes over \(\mathbb{Z}_2\) per the qubit CSS-to-homology correspondence below. Strong CSS codes are codes for which there exists a set of \(X\) and \(Z\) stabilizer generators of equal weight. |

Qubit stabilizer code | An \(((n,2^k,d))\) qubit stabilizer code is denoted as \([[n,k]]\) or \([[n,k,d]]\), where \(d\) is the code's distance. Logical subspace is the joint eigenspace of commuting Pauli operators forming the code's stabilizer group \(\mathsf{S}\). Traditionally, the logical subspace is the joint \(+1\) eigenspace of a set of \(2^{n-k}\) commuting Pauli operators which do not contain \(-I\). The distance is the minimum weight of a Pauli string that implements a nontrivial logical operation in the code. |

Qudit cubic code | Generalization of the Haah cubic code to modular qudits. |

Raussendorf-Bravyi-Harrington (RBH) cluster-state code | A three-dimensional cluster-state code defined on the bcc lattice (i.e., a cubic lattice with qubits on edges and faces). |

Rhombic dodecahedron surface code | A \([[14,3,3]]\) twist-defect surface code whose qubits lie on the vertices of a rhombic dodecahedron. Its non-CSS nature is due to twist defects [94] stemming from the geometry of the polytope. |

Rotated surface code | Variant of the surface code defined on a square lattice that has been rotated 45 degrees such that qubits are on vertices, and both \(X\)- and \(Z\)-type check operators occupy plaquettes in an alternating checkerboard pattern. |

Rotor GKP code | GKP code protecting against small angular position and momentum shifts of a planar rotor. |

Rotor stabilizer code | Rotor code whose codespace is defined as the common \(+1\) eigenspace of a group of mutually commuting rotor generalized Pauli operators. The stabilizer group can be either discrete or continuous, corresponding to modular or linear constraints on angular positions and momenta. Both cases can yield finite or infinite logical dimension. Exact codewords are non-normalizable, so approximate constructions have to be considered. |

Sierpinsky fractal spin-liquid (SFSL) code | A fractal type-I fracton CSS code defined on a cubic lattice [4; Eq. (D22)]. The code admits an excitation-moving operator shaped like a Sierpinski triangle [4; Fig. 2]. |

Singleton-bound approaching AQECC | Approximate quantum code of rate \(R\) that can tolerate adversarial errors nearly saturating the quantum Singleton bound of \((1-R)/2\). The formulation of such codes relies on a notion of quantum list decoding. Sampling a description of this code can be done with an efficient randomized algorithm with \(2^{-\Omega(n)}\) failure probability. |

Skew-cyclic CSS code | A member of a family of Galois-qudit CSS codes constructed from skew-cyclic classical codes over rings [95; Thm. 5.8]. See related study [96] that uses cyclic codes over rings. |

Spacetime circuit code | Qubit stabilizer code used to correct faults in Clifford circuits, i.e., circuits up made of Clifford gates and Pauli measurements. The code utilizes redundancy in the measurement outcomes of a circuit to correct circuit faults, which correspond to Pauli errors of the code. |

Square-lattice GKP code | Single-mode GKP qudit-into-oscillator code based on the rectangular lattice. Its stabilizer generators are oscillator displacement operators \(\hat{S}_q(2\alpha)=e^{-2i\alpha \hat{p}}\) and \(\hat{S}_p(2\beta)=e^{2i\beta \hat{x}}\). To ensure \(\hat{S}_q(2\alpha)\) and \(\hat{S}_p(2\beta)\) generate a stabilizer group that is Abelian, there is a constraint that \(\alpha\beta=2q\pi\) where \(q\) is an integer denoting the logical dimension. |

Square-octagon (4.8.8) color code | Triangular color code defined on a patch of the 4.8.8 (square-octagon) tiling, which itself is obtained by applying a fattening procedure to the square lattice [23]. |

Stabilizer code | A code whose logical subspace is the joint eigenspace (usually with eigenvalue \(+1\)) of a set of commuting unitary Pauli-type operators forming the code's stabilizer group. They can be block codes defined of tensor-product spaces of qubits or qudits, or non-block codes defined on single sufficiently large Hilbert spaces such as bosonic modes or group spaces. |

Stellated color code | A non-CSS color code on a lattice patch with a single twist defect at the center of the patch. |

Surface-17 code | A \([[9,1,3]]\) rotated surface code named for the sum of its 9 data qubits and 8 syndrome qubits. It uses the smallest number of qubits to perform fault-tolerant error correction on a surface code with parallel syndrome extraction. |

Tensor-product HDX code | Code constructed in a similar way as the HDX code, but utilizing tensor products of multiple Ramanujan complexes and then applying distance balancing. These improve the asymptotic code distance over the HDX codes from \(\sqrt{n}\log n\) to \(\sqrt{n}~\text{polylog}(n)\). The utility of such tensor products comes from the fact that one of the Ramanujan complexes is a collective cosystolic expander as opposed to just a cosystolic expander. |

Ternary-tree fermion-into-qubit code | A fermion-into-qubit encoding defined on ternary trees that maps Majorana operators into Pauli strings of weight \(\lceil \log_3 (2n+1) \rceil\). |

Tetrahedral color code | 3D color code defined on select tetrahedra of a 3D tiling. Qubits are placed on the vertices, edges, triangles, and in the center of each tetrahedron. The code has both string-like and sheet-like logical operators [97]. |

Three-fermion (3F) Walker-Wang model code | A 3D lattice stabilizer code whose low-energy excitations on boundaries realize the three-fermion anyon theory [98–100] and that can be used as a resource state for fault-tolerant MBQC [101]. |

Three-qutrit code | A \([[3,1,2]]_3\) prime-qudit CSS code that is the smallest qutrit stabilizer code to detect a single-qutrit error. with stabilizer generators \(ZZZ\) and \(XXX\). The code defines a quantum secret-sharing scheme and serves as a minimal model for the AdS/CFT holographic duality. It is also the smallest non-trivial instance of a quantum maximum distance separable code (QMDS), saturating the quantum Singleton bound. |

Three-rotor code | \([[3,1,2]]_{\mathbb Z}\) rotor code that is an extension of the \([[3,1,2]]_3\) qutrit CSS code to the integer alphabet, i.e., the angular momentum states of a planar rotor. |

Toric code | Version of the Kitaev surface code on the two-dimensional torus, encoding two logical qubits. Being the first manifestation of the surface code, "toric code" is often an alternative name for the general construction. Twisted toric code [102; Fig. 8] refers to the construction on a torus with twisted (a.k.a. shifted) boundary conditions. |

Transverse-field Ising model (TFIM) code | A 1D translationally invariant stabilizer code whose encoding is a constant-depth circuit of nearest-neighbor gates on alternating even and odd bonds that consist of transverse-field Ising Hamiltonian interactions. The code allows for perfect state transfer of arbitrary distance using local operations and classical communications (LOCC). |

Tree cluster-state code | Code obtained from a cluster state on a tree graph that has been proposed in the context of quanutm repeater and MBQC architectures. |

Triangular surface code | A surface code with weight-four stabilizer generators defined on a triangular lattice patch that are examples of twist-defect surface code with a single twist defect at the center of the patch. The codes use about \(25\%\) fewer physical per logical qubit for a given distance compared to the surface code. |

Triorthogonal code | An \(m \times n\) binary matrix is triorthogonal if its rows \(r_1, \ldots, r_m\) satisfy \(|r_i \cdot r_j| = 0\) and \(|r_i \cdot r_j \cdot r_k| = 0\), where addition and multiplication are done on \(GF(2)\). The triorthogonal CSS code associated with the matrix is constructed by mapping non-zero entries in even-weight rows to \(X\) operators, and \(Z\) operators for each row in the orthogonal complement. |

True Galois-qudit stabilizer code | A \([[n,k,d]]_q\) stabilizer code whose stabilizer's symplectic representation forms a linear subspace. In other words, the set of \(q\)-ary vectors representing the stabilizer group is closed under both addition and multiplication by elements of \(GF(q)\). In contrast, Galois-qudit stabilizer codes admit sets of vectors that are closed under addition only. |

Truncated trihexagonal (4.6.12) color code | Triangular color code defined on a patch of the 4.6.12 (truncated trihexagonal or square-hexagon-dodecagon) tiling. |

Twist-defect color code | A non-CSS extension of the 2D color code whose non-CSS stabilizer generators are associated with twist defects of the associated lattice. |

Twist-defect surface code | A non-CSS extension of the 2D surface-code construction whose non-CSS stabilizer generators are associated with twist defects of the associated lattice. A related construction [103] doubles the number of qubits in the lattice via symplectic doubling. |

Twisted XZZX toric code | A cyclic code that can be thought of as the XZZX toric code with shifted (a.k.a twisted) boundary conditions. Admits a set of stabilizer generators that are cyclic shifts of a particular weight-four \(XZZX\) Pauli string. For example, a seven-qubit \([[7,1,3]]\) variant has stabilizers generated by cyclic shifts of \(XZIZXII\) [104]. Codes encode either one or two logical qubits, depending on qubit geometry, and perform well against biased noise [105]. |

Two-block group-algebra (2BGA) codes | 2BGA codes are the smallest LP codes LP\((a,b)\), constructed from a pair of group algebra elements \(a,b\in \mathbb{F}_q[G]\), where \(G\) is a finite group, and \(\mathbb{F}_q\) is a Galois field. For a group of order \(\ell\), we get a 2BGA code of length \(n=2\ell\). A 2BGA code for an Abelian group is called an Abelian 2BGA code. A construction of such codes in terms of Kronecker products of circulant matrices was introduced in [106]. |

Two-block quantum code | Galois-qudit CSS code whose stabilizer generator matrices \(H_X=(A,B)\) and \(H_Z=(B^T,-A^T)\), are constructed from a pair of square commuting matrices \(A\) and \(B\). |

Type-II fractal spin-liquid code | A type-II fracton prime-qudit CSS code defined on a cubic lattice [4; Eqs. (D9-D10)]. |

X-cube model code | A foliated type-I fracton code supporting a subextensive number of logical qubits. Variants include the membrane-coupled [107], twice-foliated [108], and several generalized [109] X-cube models. |

XY surface code | Non-CSS derivative of the surface code whose generators are \(XXXX\) and \(YYYY\), obtained by mapping \(Z \to Y\) in the surface code. |

XYZ color code | Non-CSS variant of the 6.6.6 color code whose generators are \(XZXZXZ\) and \(ZYZYZY\) Pauli strings associated to each hexagonal in the hexagonal (6.6.6) tiling. |

XYZ product code | A non-CSS QLDPC code constructed from three classical codes. The construction of an XYZ product code is similar to that of a hypergraph product code and related codes. The idea is that rather than taking a product of only two classical codes to produce a CSS code, a third classical code is considered, acting with Pauli-\(Y\) operators. |

XYZ\(^2\) hexagonal stabilizer code | An instance of the matching code based on the Kitaev honeycomb model. It is described on a hexagonal lattice with \(XYZXYZ\) stabilizers on each hexagonal plaquette. Each vertical pair of qubits has an \(XX\), \(YY\), or \(ZZ\) link stabilizer depending on the orientation of the plaquette stabilizers. |

XZZX surface code | Non-CSS variant of the rotated surface code whose generators are \(XZZX\) Pauli strings associated, clock-wise, to the vertices of each face of a two-dimensional lattice (with a qubit located at each vertex of the tessellation). |

Yoked surface code | Member of a family of \([[n,k,d]]\) qubit CSS codes resulting from a concatenation of a QMDPC code with a rotated surface code. Concatenation does not impose additional connectivity constraints and can as much as triple the number of logical qubits per physical qubit when compared to the original surface code. Concatenation with 1D (2D) QMDPC yields codes with twice (four times) the distance. The stabilizer generators of the outer QMDPC code are referred to as yokes in this context. |

Zero-pi qubit code | A \([[2,(0,2),(2,1)]]_{\mathbb{Z}}\) homological rotor code on the smallest tiling of the projective plane \(\mathbb{R}P^2\). The ideal code can be obtained from a four-rotor Josephson-junction [66] system after a choice of grounding [67]. |

\((5,1,2)\)-convolutional code | Family of quantum convolutional codes that are 1D lattice generalizations of the five-qubit perfect code, with the former''s lattice-translation symmetry being the extension of the latter''s cyclic permutation symmetry. |

\(D\)-dimensional twisted toric code | Extenstion of the Kitaev toric code to higher-dimensional lattices with shifted (a.k.a twisted) boundary conditions. Such boundary conditions yields quibit geometries that are tori \(\mathbb{R}^D/\Lambda\), where \(\Lambda\) is an arbitrary \(D\)-dimensional lattice. Picking a hypercubic lattice yields the ordinary \(D\)-dimensional toric code. It is conjectured that appropriate twisted boundary conditions yield multi-dimensional toric code families with linear distance and logarithmic-weight stabilizer generators [110]. |

\(D_4\) hyper-diamond GKP code | Two-mode GKP qudit-into-oscillator code based on the \(D_4\) hyper-diamond lattice. |

\([[10,1,2]]\) CSS code | Smallest stabilizer code to implement a transversal \(T\) gate. |

\([[10,1,4]]_{G}\) tenfold code | A \([[10,1,4]]_{G}\) group code for finite Abelian \(G\). The code is defined using a graph that is closely related to the \([[5,1,3]]\) code. |

\([[11,1,5]]\) quantum dodecacode | Eleven-qubit pure stabilizer code that is the smallest qubit stabilizer code to correct two-qubit errors. |

\([[11,1,5]]_3\) qutrit Golay code | An \([[11,1,5]]_3\) constructed from the ternary Golay code via the CSS construction. The code's stabilizer generator matrix blocks \(H_{X}\) and \(H_{Z}\) are both the generator matrix of the ternary Golay code. |

\([[12,2,4]]\) carbon code | Self-dual twelve-qubit CSS code. |

\([[13,1,5]]\) cyclic code | Thirteen-qubit twisted surface code for which there is a set of stabilizer generators consisting of cyclic permutations of the \(XZZX\)-type Pauli string \(XIZZIXIIIIIII\). The code can be thought of as a small twisted XZZX code [111; Ex. 11 and Fig. 3] or can be derived from a quaternary QR code using the Hermitian construction [112]; see [113; pg. 11] for details. |

\([[144,12,12]]\) gross code | A BB QLDPC code which requires less physical and ancilla qubits (for syndrome extraction) than the surface code with the same number of logical qubits and distance. The name stems from the fact that a gross is a dozen dozen. |

\([[15, 7, 3]]\) quantum Hamming code | Self-dual quantum Hamming code that admits permutation-based CZ logical gates. The code is constructed using the CSS construction from the \([15,11,3]\) Hamming code and its \([15,4,8]\) dual code. |

\([[15,1,3]]\) quantum Reed-Muller code | \([[15,1,3]]\) CSS code that is most easily thought of as a tetrahedral 3D color code. This code contains 15 qubits, represented by four vertices, four face centers, six edge centers, and one body center. The tetrahedron is cellulated into four identical polyhedron cells by connecting the body center to all four face centers, where each face center is then connected by three adjacent edge centers. Each colored cell corresponds to a weight-eight \(X\)-check, and each face corresponds to a weight-4 \(Z\)-check. A logical \(Z\) is any weight-3 \(Z\)-string along an edge of the entire tetrahedron. The logical \(X\) is any weight-7 \(X\)-face of the entire tetrahedron. |

\([[2^D,D,2]]\) hypercube code | Member of a family of codes defined by placing qubits on a \(D\)-dimensional hypercube, \(Z\)-stabilizers on all two-dimensional faces, and an \(X\)-stabilizer on all vertices. These codes realize gates at the \((D-1)\)-st level of the Clifford hierarchy. It can be generalized to a \([[4^D,D,4]]\) error-correcting family [114]. Various other concatenations give families with increasing distance (see cousins). |

\([[2^r, 2^r-r-2, 3]]\) Gottesman code | A family of non-CSS stabilizer codes of distance \(3\) that saturate the asymptotic quantum Hamming bound. |

\([[2^r-1, 2^r-2r-1, 3]]\) quantum Hamming code | Member of a family of self-dual CCS codes constructed from \([2^r-1,2^r-r-1,3]=C_X=C_Z\) Hamming codes and their duals the simplex codes. The code's stabilizer generator matrix blocks \(H_{X}\) and \(H_{Z}\) are both the generator matrix for a simplex code. The weight of each stabilizer generator is \(2^{r-1}\). |

\([[2^r-1, 2^r-2r-1, 3]]_p\) quantum Hamming code | A family of CSS codes extending quantum Hamming codes to prime qudits of dimension \(p\) by expressing the qubit code stabilizers in local-dimension-invariant (LDI) form [115]. |

\([[2^r-1,1,3]]\) simplex code | Member of color-code code family constructed with a punctured first-order RM\((1,m=r)\) \([2^r-1,r+1,2^{r-1}-1]\) code and its even subcode for \(r \geq 3\). Each code transversally implements a diagonal gate at the \((r-1)\)st level of the Clifford hierarchy [116,117]. Each code is a color code defined on a simplex in \(r-1\) dimensions [75,118], where qubits are placed on the vertices, edges, and faces as well as on the simplex itself. |

\([[2^{2r-1}-1,1,2^r-1]]\) quantum punctured Reed-Muller code | Member of CSS code family constructed with a punctured self-dual RM \([2^r-1,2^{r-1},\sqrt{2}^{r-1}-1]\) code and its even subcode for \(r \geq 2\). |

\([[2m,2m-2,2]]\) error-detecting code | CSS stabilizer code for \(m\geq 2\) with generators \(\{XX\cdots X, ZZ\cdots Z\} \) acting on all \(2m\) physical qubits. The code is constructed via the CSS construction from an SPC code and a repetition code [119; Sec. III]. This is the highest-rate distance-two code when an even number of qubits is used [120]. |

\([[30,8,3]]\) Bring code | A \([[30,8,3]]\) hyperbolic surface code on a quotient of the \(\{5,5\}\) hyperbolic tiling called Bring's curve. Its qubits and stabilizer generators lie on the vertices of the small stellated dodecahedron. Admits a set of weight-five stabilizer generators. |

\([[3k + 8, k, 2]]\) triorthogonal code | Member of the \([[3k + 8, k, 2]]\) family (for even \(k\)) of triorthogonal and quantum divisible codes that admit a transversal \(T\) gate and are relevant for magic-state distillation. |

\([[4,2,2]]\) CSS code | Four-qubit CSS stabilizer code is the smallest qubit stabilizer code to detect a single-qubit error. |

\([[49,1,5]]\) triorthogonal code | Triorthogonal and quantum divisible code which is the smallest distance-five stabilizer code to admit a transversal \(T\) gate [121–123]. Its \(X\)-type stabilizers form a triply-even linear binary code in the symplectic representation. |

\([[5,1,3]]_q\) Galois-qudit code | True stabilizer code that generalizes the five-qubit perfect code to Galois qudits of prime-power dimension \(q=p^m\). It has \(4(m-1)\) stabilizer generators expressed as \(X_{\gamma} Z_{\gamma} Z_{-\gamma} X_{-\gamma} I\) and its cyclic permutations, with \(\gamma\) iterating over basis elements of \(GF(q)\) over \(GF(p)\). |

\([[5,1,3]]_{\mathbb{R}}\) Braunstein five-mode code | An analog stabilizer version of the five-qubit perfect code, encoding one mode into five and correcting arbitrary errors on any one mode. |

\([[5,1,3]]_{\mathbb{Z}_q}\) modular-qudit code | Modular-qudit stabilizer code that generalizes the five-qubit perfect code using properties of the multiplicative group \(\mathbb{Z}_q\) [124]; see also [125; Thm. 13]. It has four stabilizer generators consisting of \(X Z Z^\dagger X^\dagger I\) and its cyclic permutations. A concise expression for a set of codewords can be found in [126; Sec. VI.B]. |

\([[6,1,3]]\) Six-qubit stabilizer code | One of two six-qubit distance-three codes that are unique up to equivalence [120], with the other code a trivial extension of the five-qubit code [127]. Stabilizer generators and logical Pauli operators are presented in Ref. [127]. |

\([[6,2,2]]\) \(C_6\) code | Error-detecting self-dual CSS code used in concatenation schemes for fault-tolerant quantum computation. A set of stabilizer generators is \(IIXXXX\) and \(XXIIXX\), together with the same two \(Z\)-type generators. |

\([[6,2,3]]_{q}\) code | Six-qudit MDS error-detecting code defined for Galois-qudit dimension \(q=3\) [128], \(q=2^2\) [129], and \(q \geq 5\) [90,128]. This code cannot exist for qubits (\(q=2\)). |

\([[6,4,2]]\) error-detecting code | Error-detecting six-qubit code with rate \(2/3\) whose codewords are cat/GHz states. A set of stabilizer generators is \(XXXXXX\) and \(ZZZZZZ\). It is the unique code for its parameters, up to local equivalence [120; Tab. III]. Concatenations of this code with itself yield the \([[6^r,4^r,2^r]]\) level-\(r\) many-hypercube code [130]. |

\([[7,1,3]]\) Steane code | A \([[7,1,3]]\) CSS code that is the smallest qubit CSS code to correct a single-qubit error [127]. The code is constructed using the classical binary \([7,4,3]\) Hamming code for protecting against both \(X\) and \(Z\) errors. |

\([[7,1,3]]\) twist-defect surface code | A \([[7,1,3]]\) code (different from the Steane code) that is a small example of a twist-defect surface code. |

\([[7,3,3]]_{q}\) code | Seven-qudit MDS error-detecting code defined for Galois-qudit dimension \(q=3\) [128] and \(q \geq 7\) [90,128]. This code cannot exist for qubits (\(q=2\)). |

\([[8, 3, 3]]\) code | Eight-qubit non-degenerate code that can be obtained from a modified CSS construction using the \([8,4,4]\) extended Hamming code and a \([8,7,2]\) even-weight code [131]. The modification introduces signs between the codewords. |

\([[8,2,2]]\) hyperbolic color code | An \([[8,2,2]]\) hyperbolic color code defined on the projective plane. |

\([[8,3,2]]\) CSS code | Smallest 3D color code whose physical qubits lie on vertices of a cube and which admits a (weakly) transversal CCZ gate. |

\([[9,1,3]]\) Shor code | Nine-qubit CSS code that is the first quantum error-correcting code. |

\([[9,1,3]]_{\mathbb{R}}\) Lloyd-Slotine code | An analog stabilizer version of Shor's nine-qubit code, encoding one mode into nine and correcting arbitrary errors on any one mode. |

\([[9,1,3]]_{\mathbb{Z}_q}\) modular-qudit code | Modular-qudit CSS code that generalizes the \([[9,1,3]]\) Shor code using properties of the multiplicative group \(\mathbb{Z}_q\). |

\([[9,1,5]]_3\) quantum Glynn code | Nine-qutrit pure Hermitian code that is the smallest qutrit stabilizer code to correct two-qutrit errors. |

\([[9m-k,k,2]]_3\) triorthogonal code | Member of the \([[9m-k,k,2]]_3\) family of triorthogonal qutrit codes (for \(k\leq 3m-2\)) that admit a transversal diagonal gate in the third level of the qudit Clifford hierarchy and that are relevant for magic-state distillation. |

\([[k+4,k,2]]\) H code | Family of \([[k+4,k,2]]\) CSS codes (for even \(k\)) with transversal Hadamard gates that are relevant to magic state distillation. The four stablizer generators are \(X_1X_2X_3X_4\), \(Z_1Z_2Z_3Z_4\), \(X_1X_2X_5X_6...X_{k+4}\), and \(Z_1Z_2Z_5Z_6...Z_{k+4}\).' |

\(k\)-orthogonal code | Qubit stabilizer code whose \(X\)-type generators form a \(k\)-orthogonal matrix (defined below) in the symplectic representation. In other words, the overlap between any \(k\) stabilizers (including the identity) is even. The original definition is for qubit CSS codes [76], but it can be extended to more general qubit stabilizer codes [132; Def. 1]. This entry is formulated for qubits, but an extension exists for modular qudits [76]. |

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