## Description

Five-qubit cyclic stabilizer code that is the smallest qubit stabilizer code to correct a single-qubit error.

Code generators are symmetric under cyclic permutation of qubits, \begin{align} \begin{split} S_1 &= XZZXI \\ S_2 &= IXZZX \\ S_3 &= XIXZZ \\ S_4 &= ZXIXZ~. \end{split} \tag*{(1)}\end{align} The code's automorphism group is the dihedral group of order 10 [3].

It is the unique code for its parameters, up to equivalence [4; Corr. 10]. Any 5 qubit \(2T\)-transversal stabilizer code with distance \(d>1\) must be the five-qubit code [5,6].

This code is sometimes referred to as the DiVincenzo-Shor code after a paper that studied the code's syndrome extraction circuits [7]

## Protection

## Encoding

## Transversal Gates

## Gates

## Decoding

## Fault Tolerance

## Threshold

## Realizations

## Parents

- Twisted XZZX toric code — Twisted XZZX codes are 2D lattice extensions of the five-qubit perfect code. The five-qubit code is a small twisted XZZX toric code [30; Ex. 11 and Fig. 3][31; Ex. 3][32; Fig. 1]. Doubling the five-qubit code via the formalism of Ref. [32] yields a \([[10,2,3]]\) code.
- \((5,1,2)\)-convolutional code — The \((5,1,2)\)-convolutional code is 1D lattice extension of the five-qubit perfect code, with the former's lattice-translation symmetry being the extension of the latter's cyclic permutation symmetry. The \((5,1,2)\)-convolutional code code reduces to the five-qubit code for a five-qubit chain and periodic boundary conditions. See Ref. [33] for the first few codes in a different extension of the five-qubit perfect code.
- Pastawski-Yoshida-Harlow-Preskill (HaPPY) code — The five-qubit code is the smallest (i.e., radius-one) single-qubit HaPPY code. The five-qubit encoding isometry tiles various holographic codes because its corresponding encoding isometry tensor is a perfect tensor [34].
- Perfect quantum code — The five-qubit code is the smallest perfect code and is a member of the perfect qubit code family \([[(4^r-1)/3, (4^r-1)/3 - 2r, 3]]\) for \(r = 2\).
- Hermitian qubit code — The five-qubit code is derived from the \([5,3,3]_4\) shortened hexacode via the qubit Hermitian construction [35][36; Exam. A].
- Quantum maximum-distance-separable (MDS) code — The five-qubit code is one of the two qubit quantum MDS codes.
- Frobenius code — The \([[5,1,3]]\) code is the smallest qubit Frobenius code [37; Table I].
- \([[5,1,3]]_{\mathbb{Z}_q}\) modular-qudit code — The \([[5,1,3]]_{\mathbb{Z}_q}\) modular-qudit code for \(q=2\) reduces to the five-qubit perfect code.
- \([[5,1,3]]_q\) Galois-qudit code — The \([[5,1,3]]_q\) Galois-qudit code for \(q=2\) reduces to the five-qubit perfect code.
- Group-representation code — The five-qubit code is a group-representation code with \(G\) being the \(2T\) subgroup of \(SU(2)\) [38].

## Cousins

- Majorana stabilizer code — The five-qubit code Hamiltonian is local when expressed in terms of mutually commuting Majorana operators [39].
- Qubit code — Every \(((5,2,3))\) code is single-qubit-Clifford-equivalent to the five-qubit code [4; Corr. 10].
- Concatenated qubit code — The recursively concatenated five-qubit code has a measurement threshold of one [40]. Code performance against general Pauli channels has been worked out [41,42].
- Cluster-state code — The five-qubit code admits a codeword that is the cluster state of the pentagon graph [43,44].
- Codeword stabilized (CWS) code — The five-qubit perfect code is equivalent via a single-qubit Clifford circuit to a CWS code defined from a five-cycle graph and a classical repetition code [45,46][30; Table I].
- Hastings-Haah Floquet code — Inspired by the honeycomb Floquet code, various weight-two measurement schemes have been designed for the five-qubit code [19].
- Hexacode — Applying the qubit Hermitian construction to the hexacode yields a \([[6,0,4]]\) quantum code [35] corresponding to the six-qubit AME state. The five-qubit code can be obtained either by applying the qubit Hermitian construction to the shortened hexacode [36; Exam. A] or by tracing out a qubit of the \([[6,0,4]]\) code [34; Appx. A].
- \([[10,1,4]]_{G}\) tenfold code — The \([[10,1,4]]_{G}\) Abelian group code for \(G=\mathbb{Z}_2\) is defined using a graph that is closely related to the \([[5,1,3]]\) five-qudit code [47]. The former code can be obtained by converting the latter into a code that is oblivious to collective \(Z\)-type rotations [13; Exam. 6].
- \(U(d)\)-covariant approximate erasure code — The five-qubit code can be used to construct an approximate code that is also covariant with respect to the unitary group.
- \([[3, 1, 3;2]]\) EA code — The \([[3, 1, 3;2]]\) EA code and the five-qubit code have the same stabilizers [48,49].
- \([[4,2,2]]\) Four-qubit code — The \([[4,2,2]]\) code can be derived from the five-qubit code using a protocol that converts an \([[n,k,d]]\) code into an \([[n-1, k+1, d-1]]\) code [12; Sec. 3.5].
- \([[6,1,3]]\) Six-qubit stabilizer code — The \([[6,1,3]]\) six-qubit code is one of two six-qubit distance-three codes that are unique up to equivalence [50], with the other code a trivial extension of the five-qubit code [51].
- Holographic hybrid code — The holographic hybrid code is constructed out of alternating isometries of the five-qubit and \([[4,1,1,2]]\) Bacon-Shor codes.
- Quantum divisible code — A fault-tolerant \(T\) gate on the five-qubit code can be obtained by concatenating with particular quantum divisible codes [52].

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## Page edit log

- Remmy Zen (2024-07-15) — most recent
- Victor V. Albert (2022-08-10)
- Aleksander Kubica (2022-03-14)
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- Qingfeng (Kee) Wang (2021-12-07)

## Cite as:

“Five-qubit perfect code”, The Error Correction Zoo (V. V. Albert & P. Faist, eds.), 2024. https://errorcorrectionzoo.org/c/stab_5_1_3