Five-qubit perfect code[1,2] 

Also known as Laflamme code.


Five-qubit cyclic stabilizer code that is the smallest qubit stabilizer code to correct a single-qubit error.

Code generators are symmetric under cyclic permutation of qubits, \begin{align} \begin{split} S_1 &= XZZXI \\ S_2 &= IXZZX \\ S_3 &= XIXZZ \\ S_4 &= ZXIXZ~. \end{split} \tag*{(1)}\end{align} The code's automorphism group is the dihedral group of order 10 [3].

It is the unique code for its parameters, up to local equivalence [4; Corr. 10]. Any 5 qubit \(2T\)-transversal stabilizer code with distance \(d>1\) must be the five-qubit code [5,6].


Smallest stabilizer code that protects against a single error on any one qubit. Detects two-qubit errors.


Four generalized control gates, four Hadamard, and one \(Z\) gate [7; Fig. 10.16].Four CNOT and five CPHASE gates [8].Reinforcement learning encoding circuits [9].

Transversal Gates

Pauli gates are transversal, along with a non-Pauli Hadamard-phase gate \(SH\) and three-qubit Clifford operation \(M_3\) [10,11]. These realize the \(2T\) binary tetrahedral subgroup of \(SU(2)\).The code does not admit any non-Clifford transversal gates [4]; in particular, see [12] for the case of collective \(Z\) rotations.All transversal gates can be interpreted as monodromies under a particular notion of parallel transport [13; Exam. 6.4.2].


Magic-state distillation protocol [14].Pieceable fault-tolerant CZ, CNOT, and CCZ gates [15].


Syndrome extraction circuit using only CNOT-SWAP gates [16].Combined dynamical decoupling and error correction protocol on individually-controlled qubits with always-on Ising couplings [8].Symmetric decoder correcting all weight-one Pauli errors. The resulting logical error channel after coherent noise has been explicitly derived [17].

Fault Tolerance

Pieceable fault-tolerant CZ, CNOT, and CCZ gates [15].Syndrome measurement can be done with two ancillary flag qubits [18]. The depth of syndrome extraction circuits can be lowered by using past syndrome values [19].


Numerical study of concatenated thresholds of logical CNOT gates for various codes against depolarizing noise [20].


NMR: Implementation of perfect error correcting code on 5 spin subsystem of labeled crotonic acid for quantum network benchmarking [21]. Single-qubit logical gates [22]. Magic-state distillation using 7-qubit device [23].Superconducting qubits [24].Trapped-ion qubits: non-transversal CNOT gate between two logical qubits, including rounds of correction and fault-tolerant primitives such as flag qubits and pieceable fault tolerance, on a 12-qubit device by Quantinuum [25]. Real-time magic-state distillation [26].Nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond: fault-tolerant single-qubit Clifford operations using two ancillas [27]. The fault-tolerant circuit yields better fidelity than the non-fault-tolerant circuit.




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“Five-qubit perfect code”, The Error Correction Zoo (V. V. Albert & P. Faist, eds.), 2022.
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“Five-qubit perfect code”, The Error Correction Zoo (V. V. Albert & P. Faist, eds.), 2022.