Five-qubit perfect code[1]


Five-qubit stabilizer code with generators that are symmetric under cyclic permutation of qubits, \begin{align} \begin{split} S_1 &= IXZZX \\ S_2 &= XZZXI \\ S_3 &= ZZXIX \\ S_4 &= ZXIXZ~. \end{split} \tag*{(1)}\end{align}


Smallest stabilizer code that protects against a single error on any one qubit. Detects two-qubit errors.


Four CCZ, four Hadamard, and one \(Z\) gate ([2], Fig. 10.16).Four CNOT and five CPHASE gates [3].

Transversal Gates

Pauli gates are transversal, along with a non-Pauli Hadamard-phase gate \(SH\) and three-qubit Clifford operation \(M_3\) [4].


Pieceable fault-tolerant CZ, CNOT, and CCZ gates [5].


Combined dynamical decoupling and error correction protocol on individually-controlled qubits with always-on Ising couplings [3].Symmetric decoder correcting all weight-one Pauli errors. The resulting logical error channel after coherent noise has been explicitly derived [6].

Fault Tolerance

Pieceable fault-tolerant CZ, CNOT, and CCZ gates [5].Syndrome measurement can be done with two ancillary flag qubits [7].


NMR: Implementation of perfect error correcting code on 5 spin subsystem of labeled crotonic acid for quantum network benchmarking [8]. Single-qubit logical gates [9].Superconducting qubits [10].Trapped-ion qubits: non-transversal CNOT gate between two logical qubits, including rounds of correction and fault-tolerant primitives such as flag qubits and pieceable fault tolerance, on a 12-qubit device by Quantinuum [11].Nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond: fault-tolerant single-qubit Clifford operations [12].



  • Hamiltonian-based code — The five-qubit code Hamiltonian is local when expressed in terms of mutually commuting Majorana operators [16].
  • Majorana stabilizer code — The five-qubit code Hamiltonian is local when expressed in terms of mutually commuting Majorana operators [16].
  • Hexacode — Applying the stabilizer-over-\(GF(4)\) construction to the hexacode yields a \([[6,0,4]]\) quantum code [17] corresponding to the six-qubit perfect state. The five-qubit code can be obtained from this code by tracing out a qubit [18].
  • \(U(d)\)-covariant approximate erasure code — The five-qubit code can be used to construct an approximate code that is also covariant with respect to the unitary group.
  • Pastawski-Yoshida-Harlow-Preskill (HaPPY) code — The five-qubit encoding isometry tiles various holographic codes because its corresponding tensor is perfect [18].
  • \((5,1,2)\)-convolutional code — The \((5,1,2)\)-convolutional code is an infinite-qubit version of the five-qubit perfect code, with the former's lattice-translation symmetry being the extension of the latter's cyclic permutation symmetry.
  • Quantum divisible code — A fault-tolerant \(T\) gate on the five-qubit code can be obtained by concatenating with particular quantum divisible codes.
  • \([[4,2,2]]\) CSS code — \([[4,2,2]]\) can be derived from the five-qubit code using a protocol that converts an \([[n,k,d]]\) code into an \([[n-1, k+1, d-1]]\) code; see Sec. 3.5 in Gottesman [4].
  • \([[5,1,3]]_{\mathbb{Z}_q}\) modular-qudit code — The \([[5,1,3]]_{\mathbb{Z}_q}\) modular-qudit code reduces to the five-qubit perfect code for \(q=2\).
  • \([[5,1,3]]_q\) Galois-qudit code — The \([[5,1,3]]_q\) Galois-qudit code reduces to the five-qubit perfect code for \(q=2\).


R. Laflamme et al., “Perfect Quantum Error Correction Code”, (1996) arXiv:quant-ph/9602019
M. Nakahara, “Quantum Computing”, (2008) DOI
A. De and L. P. Pryadko, “Universal set of dynamically protected gates for bipartite qubit networks: Soft pulse implementation of the [[5,1,3]] quantum error-correcting code”, Physical Review A 93, (2016) arXiv:1509.01239 DOI
D. Gottesman, “Stabilizer Codes and Quantum Error Correction”, (1997) arXiv:quant-ph/9705052
T. J. Yoder, R. Takagi, and I. L. Chuang, “Universal Fault-Tolerant Gates on Concatenated Stabilizer Codes”, Physical Review X 6, (2016) arXiv:1603.03948 DOI
C. Liu, “Exact performance of the five-qubit code with coherent errors”, (2022) arXiv:2203.01706
R. Chao and B. W. Reichardt, “Quantum Error Correction with Only Two Extra Qubits”, Physical Review Letters 121, (2018) arXiv:1705.02329 DOI
E. Knill et al., “Benchmarking Quantum Computers: The Five-Qubit Error Correcting Code”, Physical Review Letters 86, 5811 (2001) arXiv:quant-ph/0101034 DOI
J. Zhang, R. Laflamme, and D. Suter, “Experimental Implementation of Encoded Logical Qubit Operations in a Perfect Quantum Error Correcting Code”, Physical Review Letters 109, (2012) arXiv:1208.4797 DOI
M. Gong et al., “Experimental exploration of five-qubit quantum error-correcting code with superconducting qubits”, National Science Review 9, (2021) arXiv:1907.04507 DOI
C. Ryan-Anderson et al., “Implementing Fault-tolerant Entangling Gates on the Five-qubit Code and the Color Code”, (2022) arXiv:2208.01863
M. H. Abobeih et al., “Fault-tolerant operation of a logical qubit in a diamond quantum processor”, Nature 606, 884 (2022) arXiv:2108.01646 DOI
A. A. Kovalev, I. Dumer, and L. P. Pryadko, “Design of additive quantum codes via the code-word-stabilized framework”, Physical Review A 84, (2011) arXiv:1108.5490 DOI
A. A. Kovalev and L. P. Pryadko, “Quantum Kronecker sum-product low-density parity-check codes with finite rate”, Physical Review A 88, (2013) arXiv:1212.6703 DOI
H. Hao, “Investigations on Automorphism Groups of Quantum Stabilizer Codes”, (2021) arXiv:2109.12735
Aleksander Kubica, private communication, 2019
A. J. Scott, “Multipartite entanglement, quantum-error-correcting codes, and entangling power of quantum evolutions”, Physical Review A 69, (2004) arXiv:quant-ph/0310137 DOI
F. Pastawski et al., “Holographic quantum error-correcting codes: toy models for the bulk/boundary correspondence”, Journal of High Energy Physics 2015, (2015) arXiv:1503.06237 DOI
Page edit log

Your contribution is welcome!

on (edit & pull request)

edit on this site

Zoo Code ID: stab_5_1_3

Cite as:
“Five-qubit perfect code”, The Error Correction Zoo (V. V. Albert & P. Faist, eds.), 2022.
@incollection{eczoo_stab_5_1_3, title={Five-qubit perfect code}, booktitle={The Error Correction Zoo}, year={2022}, editor={Albert, Victor V. and Faist, Philippe}, url={} }
Share via:
Twitter | Mastodon |  | E-mail
Permanent link:

Cite as:

“Five-qubit perfect code”, The Error Correction Zoo (V. V. Albert & P. Faist, eds.), 2022.