Here is a list of codes related to and generalizing the Kitaev surface code.

Code | Description |
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3D surface code | A variant of the Kitaev surface code on a 3D lattice. The closely related solid code [1] consists of several 3D surface codes stitched together in a way that the distance scales faster than the linear size of the system. |

Abelian quantum double stabilizer code | Modular-qudit stabilizer code whose codewords realize 2D modular gapped Abelian topological order with trivial cocycle. The corresponding anyon theory is defined by an abelian group. All such codes can be realized by a stack of modular-qudit surface codes because all abelian groups are Kronecker products of cyclic groups. |

Bring's code | Also called a small stellated dodecahedron code. A \([[30,8,3]]\) hyperbolic surface code on a quotient of the \(\{5,5\}\) hyperbolic tiling called Bring's curve. Its qubits and stabilizer generators lie on the vertices of the small stellated dodecahedron. Admits a set of weight-five stabilizer generators. |

Clifford-deformed surface code (CDSC) | A generally non-CSS derivative of the surface code defined by applying a constant-depth Clifford circuit to the original (CSS) surface code. Unlike the surface code, CDSCs include codes whose thresholds and subthreshold performance are enhanced under noise biased towards dephasing. Examples of CDSCs include the XY code, XZZX code, and random CDSCs. |

Color code | A family of abelian topological CSS stabilizer codes defined on a \(D\)-dimensional lattice which satisfies two properties: The lattice is (1) a homogeneous simplicial \(D\)-complex obtained as a triangulation of the interior of a \(D\)-simplex and (2) is \(D+1\)-colorable. Qubits are placed on the \(D\)-simplices and generators are supported on suitable simplices [2]. For 2-dimensional color code, the lattice must be such that it is 3-valent and has 3-colorable faces, such as a honeycomb lattice. The qubits are placed on the vertices and two stabilizer generators are placed on each face [3]. |

Dihedral \(G=D_m\) quantum-double code | Quantum-double code whose codewords realize \(G=D_m\) topological order associated with a \(2m\)-element dihedral group \(D_m\). Includes the simplest non-Abelian order \(D_3 = S_3\) associated with the permutation group of three objects. |

Double-semion stabilizer code | Modular-qudit stabilizer code with qudit dimension \(q=4\) that is characterized by the double semion topological phase. The code can be obtained from the \(\mathbb{Z}_4\) surface code by condensing the anyon \(e^2 m^2\) [4]. Originally formulated as a non-stabilizer qubit code [5]. |

Five-qubit perfect code | Five-qubit stabilizer code that is the smallest qubit stabilizer code to correct a single-qubit error. Its generators that are symmetric under cyclic permutation of qubits, \begin{align} \begin{split} S_1 &= IXZZX \\ S_2 &= XZZXI \\ S_3 &= ZZXIX \\ S_4 &= ZXIXZ~. \end{split} \tag*{(1)}\end{align} |

Floquet color code | Also called the CSS Floquet code. Floquet code on a trivalent lattice whose parent topological phase is the \(\mathbb{Z}_2\times\mathbb{Z}_2\) 2D color-code phase and whose measurements cycle logical quantum information between the three \(\mathbb{Z}_2\) surface-code condensed phases of the parent phase. The code's ISG is the stabilizer group of one of the three surface codes. |

Fractal surface code | Kitaev surface code on a fractal geometry, which is obtained by removing qubits from the surface code on a cubic lattice. Stub. |

Freedman-Meyer-Luo code | Hyperbolic surface code constructed using cellulation of a Riemannian Manifold \(M\) exhibiting systolic freedom [6]. Codes derived from such manifolds can achieve distances scaling better than \(\sqrt{n}\), something that is impossible using closed 2D surfaces or 2D surfaces with boundaries [7]. Improved codes are obtained by studying a weak family of Riemann metrics on closed 4-dimensional manifolds \(S^2\otimes S^2\) with the \(Z_2\)-homology. |

Generalized surface code | Also called the \(D\)-dimensional surface or \(D\)-dimensional toric code. CSS-type extenstion of the Kitaev surface code to arbitrary \(D\)-dimensional manifolds. The 4D surface code serves as a self-correcting quantum memory, while surface codes in higher dimensions can have distances not possible in lower dimensions. |

Golden code | Variant of the Guth-Lubotzky hyperbolic surface code that uses regular tessellations for 4-dimensional hyperbolic space. |

Guth-Lubotzky code | Hyperbolic surface code based on cellulations of certain four-dimensional manifolds. The manifolds are shown to have good homology and systolic properties for the purposes of code construction, with corresponding codes exhibiting linear rate. |

Heavy-hexagon code | Subsystem stabilizer code on the heavy-hexagonal lattice that combines Bacon-Shor and surface-code stabilizers. Encodes one logical qubit into \(n=(5d^2-2d-1)/2\) physical qubits with distance \(d\). The heavy-hexagonal lattice allows for low degree (at most 3) connectivity between all the data and ancilla qubits, which is suitable for fixed-frequency transom qubits subject to frequency collision errors. |

Hemicubic code | Stub. |

Honeycomb Floquet code | Floquet code based on the Kitaev honeycomb model [8] whose logical qubits are generated through a particular sequence of measurements. |

Hyperbolic surface code | An extension of the Kitaev surface code construction to hyperbolic manifolds. Given a cellulation of a manifold, qubits are put on \(i\)-dimensional faces, \(X\)-type stabilizers are associated with \((i-1)\)-faces, while \(Z\)-type stabilizers are associated with \(i+1\)-faces. |

Hypersphere product code | Stub. |

Kitaev honeycomb code | Code whose logical subspace is labeled by different fusion outcomes of Ising anyons present in the nonabelian topological phase of the Kitaev honeycomb model [8]. Each logical qubit is constructed out of four Majorana operators, which admit braiding-based gates due to their nonabelian statistics and which can be used for topological quantum computation. |

Kitaev surface code | A family of abelian topological CSS stabilizer codes whose generators are few-body \(X\)-type and \(Z\)-type Pauli strings associated to the stars and plaquettes, respectively, of a cellulation of a two-dimensional surface (with a qubit located at each edge of the cellulation). Toric code often either refers to the construction on the two-dimensional torus or is an alternative name for the general construction. The construction on surfaces with boundaries is often called the planar code [9–11]. Codewords correspond to ground states of the surface code Hamiltonian, and error operators create or annihilate pairs of anyonic charges or vortices. |

Majorana stabilizer code | A stabilizer code whose stabilizers are products of an even number of Majorana fermion operators, analogous to Pauli strings for a traditional stabilizer code and referred to as Majorana stabilizers. The codespace is the mutual \(+1\) eigenspace of all Majorana stabilizers. In such systems, Majorana fermions may either be considered individually or paired into creation and annihilation operators for fermionic modes. Codes can be denoted as \([[n,k,d]]_{f}\) [12], where \(n\) is the number of fermionic modes. |

Matching code | Member of a class of qubit stabilizer codes based on the abelian phase of the Kitaev honeycomb model. |

Modular-qudit surface code | Also known as the \(\mathbb{Z}_q\) surface code. Extension of the surface code to prime-dimensional [13,14] and more general modular qudits [15]. Stabilizer generators are few-body \(X\)-type and \(Z\)-type Pauli strings associated to the stars and plaquettes, respectively, of a tessellation of a two-dimensional surface. Since qudits have more than one \(X\) and \(Z\)-type operator, various sets of stabilizer generators can be defined. Ground-state degeneracy and the associated phase depends on the qudit dimension and the stabilizer generators. |

Projective-plane surface code | A family of Kitaev surface codes on the non-orientable 2-dimensional compact manifold \(\mathbb{R}P^2\) (in contrast to a genus-\(g\) surface). Whereas genus-\(g\) surface codes require \(2g\) logical qubits, qubit codes on \(\mathbb{R}P^2\) are made from a single logical qubit. |

Quantum-double code | Group-GKP stabilizer code whose codewords realize 2D modular gapped topological order defined by a finite group \(G\). The code's generators are few-body operators associated to the stars and plaquettes, respectively, of a tessellation of a two-dimensional surface (with a qudit of dimension \( |G| \) located at each edge of the tesselation). |

Raussendorf-Bravyi-Harrington (RBH) cluster-state code | Also called an RHG (Raussendorf-Harrington-Goyal) cluster-state code. A three-dimensional cluster-state code defined on the bcc lattice (equivalently, a cubic lattice with qubits on edges and faces). |

Rotated surface code | Also called a checkerboard code. CSS variant of the surface code defined on a square lattice that has been rotated 45 degrees such that qubits are on vertices, and both \(X\)- and \(Z\)-type check operators occupy plaquettes in an alternating checkerboard pattern. |

Spacetime circuit code | Qubit stabilizer code used to correct faults in Clifford circuits, i.e., circuits up made of Clifford gates and Pauli measurements. The code utilizes redundancy in the measurement outcomes of a circuit to correct circuit faults. |

Subsystem surface code | Subsystem version of the surface code defined on a square lattice with qubits placed at every vertex and center of everry edge. |

Surface-17 code | A \([[9,1,3]]\) rotated surface code named for the sum of its 9 data qubits and 8 syndrome qubits. It uses the smallest number of qubits to perform error correction on a surface code with parallel syndrome extraction. |

Three-fermion (3F) subsystem code | Modular-qudit 2D subsystem stabilizer code whose low-energy excitations realize the three-fermion anyon theory [16–18]. One version uses two qubits at each site [4], while other manifestations utilize a single qubit per site and only two-body interactions [17,19]. All are expected to be equivalent to each other under local Clifford transformations. |

Translationally invariant stabilizer code | A geometrically local qubit, modular-qudit, or Galois-qudit stabilizer code with qudits organized on a lattice modeled by the additive group \(\mathbb{Z}^D\) for spatial dimension \(D\) such that each lattice point, referred to as a site, contains \(m\) qudits of dimension \(q\). The stabilizer group of the translationally invariant code is generated by site-local Pauli operators and their translations. |

Two-dimensional hyperbolic surface code | Hyperbolic surface codes based on a tessellation of a closed 2D manifold with a hyperbolic geometry (i.e., non-Euclidean geometry, e.g., saddle surfaces when defined on a 2D plane). |

XY surface code | Also called the tailored surface code (TSC). Non-CSS derivative of the surface code whose generators are \(XXXX\) and \(YYYY\), obtained by mapping \(Z \to Y\) in the surface code. |

XYZ\(^2\) hexagonal stabilizer code | An instance of the matching code based on the Kitaev honeycomb model. It is described on a hexagonal lattice with \(XYZXYZ\) stabilizers on each hexagonal plaquette. Each vertical pair of qubits has an \(XX\), \(YY\), or \(ZZ\) link stabilizer depending on the orientation of the plaquette stabilizers. |

XZZX surface code | Non-CSS variant of the rotated surface code whose generators are \(XZXZ\) Pauli strings associated, clock-wise, to the vertices of each face of a two-dimensional lattice (with a qubit located at each vertex of the tessellation). |

\([[15,1,3]]\) quantum Reed-Muller code | \([[15,1,3]]\) CSS code that is most easily thought of as a tetrahedral 3D color code. This code contains 15 qubits, represented by four vertices, four face centers, six edge centers, and one body center. The tetrahedron is cellulated into four identical polyhedron cells by connecting the body center to all four face centers, where each face center is then connected by three adjacent edge centers. Each colored cell corresponds to a weight-8 \(X\)-check, and each face corresponds to a weight-4 \(Z\)-check. A logical \(Z\) is any weight-3 \(Z\)-string along an edge of the entire tetrahedron. The logical \(X\) is any weight-7 \(X\)-face of the entire tetrahedron. |

\([[4,2,2]]\) CSS code | Four-qubit CSS stabilizer code is the smallest qubit stabilizer code to detect a single-qubit error. Admits generators \(\{XXXX, ZZZZ\} \) and codewords \begin{align} \begin{split} |\overline{00}\rangle = (|0000\rangle + |1111\rangle)/\sqrt{2}~{\phantom{.}}\\ |\overline{01}\rangle = (|0011\rangle + |1100\rangle)/\sqrt{2}~{\phantom{.}}\\ |\overline{10}\rangle = (|0101\rangle + |1010\rangle)/\sqrt{2}~{\phantom{.}}\\ |\overline{11}\rangle = (|0110\rangle + |1001\rangle)/\sqrt{2}~. \end{split} \tag*{(2)}\end{align} This code is the smallest instance of the toric code, and its various single-qubit subcodes are small planar surface codes. |

\([[7,1,3]]\) Steane code | A \([[7,1,3]]\) CSS code that is the smallest qubit CSS code to correct a single-qubit error. The code is constructed using the classical binary \([7,4,3]\) Hamming code for protecting against both \(X\) and \(Z\) errors. |

\([[8,3,2]]\) code | Smallest 3D color code whose physical qubits lie on vertices of a cube and which admits a transversal CCZ gate. Similar constructions exist on \(d\)-dimensional hypercubes and are called hyperoctahedron \([[2^d,d,2]]\) codes [20]. |

\([[9,1,3]]\) Shor code | Nine-qubit CSS code that is the first quantum error-correcting code. |

\([[9,1,3]]_{\mathbb{Z}_q}\) modular-qudit code | Modular-qudit CSS code that generalizes the \([[9,1,3]]\) Shor code using properties of the multiplicative group \(\mathbb{Z}_q\). |