Quantum-double code[1]


A family of topological codes, defined by a finite group \( G \), whose generators are few-body operators associated to the stars and plaquettes, respectively, of a tessellation of a two-dimensional surface (with a qudit of dimension \( |G| \) located at each edge of the tesselation).

The physical Hilbert space has dimension \( |G|^E \), where \( E \) is the number of edges in the tessellation. The dimension of the code space is the number of orbits of the conjugation action of \( G \) on \( \text{Hom}(\pi_1(\Sigma),G) \), the set of group homomorphisms from the fundamental group of the surface \( \Sigma \) into the finite group \( G \) [2]. When \( G \) is abelian, the formula for the dimension simplifies to \( |G|^{2g} \), where \( g \) is the genus of the surface \( \Sigma \).

The codespace is the ground-state subspace of the quantum double model Hamiltonian. For nonabelian groups, alternative constructions are possible, encoding information in the fusion space of the low-energy anyonic quasiparticle excitations of the model [3][4][5]. The fusion space of such nonabelian anyons has dimension greater than one, allowing for topological quantum computation of logical information stored in the fusion outcomes.


Error-correcting properties established in Ref. [2]. The code distance is the number of edges in the shortest non contractible cycle in the tesselation or dual tesselation [6].


For an \(L\times L\) lattice, deterministic state preparation can be done with a geometrically local unitary \(O(L)\)-depth circuit [7][8] or an \(O(\log{L})\)-depth unitary circuit with non-local two-qubit gates [9].For any solvable group \(G\), ground-state preparation and anyon-pair creation can be done with an adaptive constant-depth circuit with geometrically local gates and measurements throughout [10] (see Ref. [11] for specific dihedral groups). Anyon-pair creation requires an adaptive circuit for any nonabelian \(G\) [10].


For any solvable group \(G\), topological charge measurements can be done with an adaptive constant-depth circuit with geometrically local gates and measurements throughout [10].


The \( \Phi, \Lambda \) Decodoku game is based on the quantum double model for the group \(S_3\) of permutations on three letters.


  • Group GKP code — Quantum-double models admit stabilizer-like \(X\)- and \(Z\)-type operators [12], and the codes can be formulated as group GKP codes.
  • Topological code — Quantum-double code Hamiltonians admit topological phases associated with finite groups \(G\).


  • Modular-qudit surface code — A quantum-double model with \(G=\mathbb{Z}_q\) is the qudit surface code.
  • String-net code — String-net model reduces to the quantum-double model for group categories.
  • Generalized color code — Generalized color code for group \(G\) on the 4.8.8 lattice is equivalent to a \(G\) quantum double model and another \(G/[G,G]\) quantum double model defined using the abelianization of \(G\).
  • Kitaev surface code — A quantum-double model with \(G=\mathbb{Z}_2\) is the surface code. Non-stabilizer surface-code states can be prepared by augmenting the code with a quantum double model [13].


A. Yu. Kitaev, “Fault-tolerant quantum computation by anyons”, Annals of Physics 303, 2 (2003) arXiv:quant-ph/9707021 DOI
S. X. Cui et al., “Kitaev’s quantum double model as an error correcting code”, Quantum 4, 331 (2020) arXiv:1908.02829 DOI
R. Walter Ogburn and J. Preskill, “Topological Quantum Computation”, Quantum Computing and Quantum Communications 341 (1999) DOI
C. Mochon, “Anyon computers with smaller groups”, Physical Review A 69, (2004) arXiv:quant-ph/0306063 DOI
J. K. Pachos, Introduction to Topological Quantum Computation (Cambridge University Press, 2012) DOI
E. Dennis et al., “Topological quantum memory”, Journal of Mathematical Physics 43, 4452 (2002) arXiv:quant-ph/0110143 DOI
G. K. Brennen, M. Aguado, and J. I. Cirac, “Simulations of quantum double models”, New Journal of Physics 11, 053009 (2009) arXiv:0901.1345 DOI
M. Aguado, “From entanglement renormalisation to the disentanglement of quantum double models”, Annals of Physics 326, 2444 (2011) arXiv:1101.0527 DOI
M. Aguado and G. Vidal, “Entanglement Renormalization and Topological Order”, Physical Review Letters 100, (2008) arXiv:0712.0348 DOI
S. Bravyi et al., “Adaptive constant-depth circuits for manipulating non-abelian anyons”, (2022) arXiv:2205.01933
R. Verresen, N. Tantivasadakarn, and A. Vishwanath, “Efficiently preparing Schrödinger’s cat, fractons and non-Abelian topological order in quantum devices”, (2022) arXiv:2112.03061
V. V. Albert et al., “Spin chains, defects, and quantum wires for the quantum-double edge”, (2021) arXiv:2111.12096
K. Laubscher, D. Loss, and J. R. Wootton, “Universal quantum computation in the surface code using non-Abelian islands”, Physical Review A 100, (2019) arXiv:1811.06738 DOI
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Zoo Code ID: quantum_double

Cite as:
“Quantum-double code”, The Error Correction Zoo (V. V. Albert & P. Faist, eds.), 2022. https://errorcorrectionzoo.org/c/quantum_double
@incollection{eczoo_quantum_double, title={Quantum-double code}, booktitle={The Error Correction Zoo}, year={2022}, editor={Albert, Victor V. and Faist, Philippe}, url={https://errorcorrectionzoo.org/c/quantum_double} }
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Cite as:

“Quantum-double code”, The Error Correction Zoo (V. V. Albert & P. Faist, eds.), 2022. https://errorcorrectionzoo.org/c/quantum_double

Github: https://github.com/errorcorrectionzoo/eczoo_data/tree/main/codes/quantum/groups/quantum_double.yml.