3D surface code[1,2] 

Also known as 3D toric code, 3D cubic code.

Description

A generalization of the Kitaev surface code defined on a 3D lattice.

3D toric code often either refers to the construction on the three-dimensional torus or is an alternative name for the general construction. The construction on surfaces with boundaries is often called the 3D surface code. There exists a rotated version of the 3D surface code, the 3D rotated surface code, akin to the (2D) rotated surface code [3]. The welded surface code [4] consists of several 3D surface codes stitched together in a way that the distance scales faster than the linear size of the system.

Related models [5,6] on lattices with certain colorability are equivalent to several copies of the 3D surface code [7].

Protection

The planar 3D surface code family on a cubic lattice of length \(L\) has parameters \([[2L(L-1)^2+L^3,1,d_X=L^2,d_Z=L]]\), while the 3D toric code has parameters \([[3L^3,3,d_X=L^2,d_Z=L]]\).

Transversal Gates

Transversal CZ and CCZ gates [8,9].

Gates

CZ gate for toric code on a Klein bottle [10].Lattice surgery [9].3D and Hybrid 2D-3D surface code computation using lattice surgery and without magic-state distillation [9].Fault-tolerant Hadamard gate using teleportation and error correction [9].

Decoding

Flip decoder and its modification p-flip [11].Tensor-network decoder [12].Efficient MWPM decoder for 3D toric and 3D welded surface codes [13].Generalization of linear-time ML erasure decoder [14] to 3D surface codes [13].

Fault Tolerance

Fault-tolerant Hadamard gate using teleportation and error correction [9].

Code Capacity Threshold

Independent \(X,Z\) noise: \(12\%\) for bit-flip and \(3\%\) for phase-flip channels with MWPM decoder for 3D toric code [13], and \(17.2\%\) and \(3.3\%\) with RG decoder for 3D toric code [15].Erasure noise: \(24.8\%\) with generalization of linear-time ML erasure decoder [14] to 3D surface codes [13]. No threshold was observed for the 3D welded surface code [13].

Threshold

Phenomenological noise model for the 3D toric code: \(2.90(2)\%\) under BP-OSD decoder [16], \(7.1\%\) under improved BP-OSD [17], \(7.3\%\) under RG [15], and \(2.6\%\) under flip decoder [11]. For 3D surface code: \(3.08(4)\%\) under flip decoder [16].

Parents

Cousins

  • Chamon model code — The Chamon and 3D surface codes can both be built out of a hypergraph product of three repetition codes; see [19; Sec. 3.4].
  • Rotated surface code — There exists a rotated version of the 3D surface code, akin to the (2D) rotated surface code [3].
  • Self-correcting quantum code — The 3D welded surface code is partially self-correcting with a power-law energy barrier [4]. The 3D toric code is a classical self-correcting memory, whose protected bit admits a membrane-like logical operator [20], but it is not a quantum self-correcting memory [21].
  • 3D color code — The 3D color code is equivalent to multiple decoupled copies of the 3D surface code via a local constant-depth Clifford circuit [8,22,23]. This mapping can also be done via code concatenation [9].
  • 3D fermionic surface code — The 3D (fermionic) surface code is a CSS (non-CSS) code which realizes a \(\mathbb{Z}_2\) gauge theory in 3D (with an emergent fermion).
  • 3D subsystem surface code

References

[1]
E. Dennis et al., “Topological quantum memory”, Journal of Mathematical Physics 43, 4452 (2002) arXiv:quant-ph/0110143 DOI
[2]
A. Hamma, P. Zanardi, and X.-G. Wen, “String and membrane condensation on three-dimensional lattices”, Physical Review B 72, (2005) arXiv:cond-mat/0411752 DOI
[3]
E. Huang et al., “Tailoring Three-Dimensional Topological Codes for Biased Noise”, PRX Quantum 4, (2023) arXiv:2211.02116 DOI
[4]
K. P. Michnicki, “3D Topological Quantum Memory with a Power-Law Energy Barrier”, Physical Review Letters 113, (2014) arXiv:1406.4227 DOI
[5]
H. Bombin and M. A. Martin-Delgado, “Exact topological quantum order inD=3and beyond: Branyons and brane-net condensates”, Physical Review B 75, (2007) arXiv:cond-mat/0607736 DOI
[6]
I. H. Kim, “Local non-CSS quantum error correcting code on a three-dimensional lattice”, (2013) arXiv:1012.0859
[7]
A. Dua et al., “Sorting topological stabilizer models in three dimensions”, Physical Review B 100, (2019) arXiv:1908.08049 DOI
[8]
A. Kubica, B. Yoshida, and F. Pastawski, “Unfolding the color code”, New Journal of Physics 17, 083026 (2015) arXiv:1503.02065 DOI
[9]
M. Vasmer and D. E. Browne, “Three-dimensional surface codes: Transversal gates and fault-tolerant architectures”, Physical Review A 100, (2019) arXiv:1801.04255 DOI
[10]
M. Barkeshli et al., “Higher-group symmetry in finite gauge theory and stabilizer codes”, (2024) arXiv:2211.11764
[11]
T. R. Scruby and K. Nemoto, “Local Probabilistic Decoding of a Quantum Code”, Quantum 7, 1093 (2023) arXiv:2212.06985 DOI
[12]
C. Piveteau, C. T. Chubb, and J. M. Renes, “Tensor Network Decoding Beyond 2D”, (2023) arXiv:2310.10722
[13]
A. Kulkarni and P. K. Sarvepalli, “Decoding the three-dimensional toric codes and welded codes on cubic lattices”, Physical Review A 100, (2019) arXiv:1808.03092 DOI
[14]
N. Delfosse and G. Zémor, “Linear-time maximum likelihood decoding of surface codes over the quantum erasure channel”, Physical Review Research 2, (2020) arXiv:1703.01517 DOI
[15]
K. Duivenvoorden, N. P. Breuckmann, and B. M. Terhal, “Renormalization Group Decoder for a Four-Dimensional Toric Code”, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 65, 2545 (2019) arXiv:1708.09286 DOI
[16]
A. O. Quintavalle et al., “Single-Shot Error Correction of Three-Dimensional Homological Product Codes”, PRX Quantum 2, (2021) arXiv:2009.11790 DOI
[17]
O. Higgott and N. P. Breuckmann, “Improved Single-Shot Decoding of Higher-Dimensional Hypergraph-Product Codes”, PRX Quantum 4, (2023) arXiv:2206.03122 DOI
[18]
L. Berent et al., “Analog information decoding of bosonic quantum LDPC codes”, (2023) arXiv:2311.01328
[19]
A. Leverrier, S. Apers, and C. Vuillot, “Quantum XYZ Product Codes”, Quantum 6, 766 (2022) arXiv:2011.09746 DOI
[20]
O. Landon-Cardinal et al., “Perturbative instability of quantum memory based on effective long-range interactions”, Physical Review A 91, (2015) arXiv:1501.04112 DOI
[21]
Y. Li et al., “Phase diagram of the three-dimensional subsystem toric code”, (2023) arXiv:2305.06389
[22]
B. Yoshida, “Classification of quantum phases and topology of logical operators in an exactly solved model of quantum codes”, Annals of Physics 326, 15 (2011) arXiv:1007.4601 DOI
[23]
A. B. Aloshious, A. N. Bhagoji, and P. K. Sarvepalli, “On the Local Equivalence of 2D Color Codes and Surface Codes with Applications”, (2018) arXiv:1804.00866
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Zoo Code ID: 3d_surface

Cite as:
“3D surface code”, The Error Correction Zoo (V. V. Albert & P. Faist, eds.), 2022. https://errorcorrectionzoo.org/c/3d_surface
BibTeX:
@incollection{eczoo_3d_surface, title={3D surface code}, booktitle={The Error Correction Zoo}, year={2022}, editor={Albert, Victor V. and Faist, Philippe}, url={https://errorcorrectionzoo.org/c/3d_surface} }
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“3D surface code”, The Error Correction Zoo (V. V. Albert & P. Faist, eds.), 2022. https://errorcorrectionzoo.org/c/3d_surface

Github: https://github.com/errorcorrectionzoo/eczoo_data/edit/main/codes/quantum/qubits/stabilizer/topological/surface/higher_d/3d_surface.yml.