Code | Description |
---|---|

Balanced product code | Family of CSS quantum codes based on products of two classical codes which share common symmetries. The balanced product can be understood as taking the usual tensor/hypergraph product and then factoring out the symmetries factored. This reduces the overall number of physical qubits \(n\), while, under certain circumstances, leaving the number of encoded qubits \(k\) and the code distance \(d\) invariant. This leads to a more favourable encoding rate \(k/n\) and normalized distance \(d/n\) compared to the tensor/hypergraph product. |

Dinur-Hsieh-Lin-Vidick (DHLV) code | Stub. |

Distance-balanced code | CSS stabilizer code constructed from a CSS code and a classical code using a distance-balancing procedure based on a generalized homological product. The initial code is said to be unbalanced, i.e., tailored to noise biased toward either bit- or phase-flip errors, and the procedure can result in a code that is treats both types of errors on a more equal footing. The original distance-balancing procedure [1], later generalized in Ref. [2], can yield QLDPC codes; see Thm. 1 in Ref. [1]. |

Expander lifted-product code | Family of \(G\)-lifted product codes constructed using two random classical Tanner codes defined on expander graphs. For certain parameters, this construction yields the first asymptotically good QLDPC codes. Classical codes resulting from this construction are one of the first two families of \(c^3\)-LTCs. |

Fiber-bundle code | Also called a twisted product code. CSS code constructed by combining a random LDPC code as the base and a cyclic repetition code as the fiber of a fiber bundle. After applying distance balancing, a QLDPC code with distance \(\Omega(n^{3/5}\text{polylog}(n))\) and rate \(\Omega(n^{-2/5}\text{polylog}(n))\) is obtained. |

Generalized homological product code | Stabilizer code formulated in terms a chain complex consisting of some type of product of other chain complexes. The CSS-to-homology correspondence yields an interpretation of codes in terms of manifolds, thus allowing for the use of various products from topology in constructing codes. The codes participating in the product can be quantum, classical, or mixed. Products can be of more than two codes, in which case the output code need not be of CSS type (e.g., for XYZ-product codes). The simplest product is a tensor product, with more general products imposing equivalence or symmetry relations on the outputs of the tensor product. A product of two codes can be interpreted as a fiber bundle, with one element of the product being the base and the other being the fiber. |

Homological product code | CSS code formulated using the homological product of two chain complexes (see CSS-to-homology correspondence). Stub. |

Hypergraph product code | A family of \([[n,k,d]]\) CSS codes whose construction is based on two binary linear seed codes \(C_1\) and \(C_2\). |

Lifted-product (LP) code | Also called a Panteleev-Kalachev (PK) code. Code that utilizes the notion of a lifted product in its construction. Lifted products of certain classical Tanner codes are the first (asymptotically) good QLDPC codes. |

Quantum Tanner code | Stub. |

Quantum check-product code | Stub. |

Quantum expander code | CSS codes constructed from a hypergraph product of bipartite expander graphs with bounded left and right vertex degrees. For every bipartite graph there is an associated matrix (the parity check matrix) with columns indexed by the left vertices, rows indexed by the right vertices, and 1 entries whenever a left and right vertex are connected. This matrix can serve as the parity check matrix of a classical code. Two bipartite expander graphs can be used to construct a quantum CSS code (the quantum expander code) by using the parity check matrix of one as \(X\) checks, and the parity check matrix of the other as \(Z\) checks. |

Ramanujan-complex product code | CSS code constructed from a Ramanujan quantum code and an asymptotically good classical LDPC code using distance balancing. Ramanujan quantum codes are defined using Ramanujan complexes which are simplicial complexes that generalise Ramanujan graphs. Combining the quantum code obtained from a Ramanujan complex and a good classical LDPC code, which can be thought of as coming from a 1-dimensional chain complex, yields a new quantum code that is defined on a 2-dimensional chain complex. This 2-dimensional chain complex is obtained by the co-complex of the product of the 2 co-complexes. The length, dimension and distance of the new quantum code depend on the input codes. |

Rotated surface code | Also called a checkerboard code. CSS variant of the surface code defined on a square lattice that has been rotated 45 degrees such that qubits are on vertices, and both \(X\)- and \(Z\)-type check operators occupy plaquettes in an alternating checkerboard pattern. |

Surface-17 code | A \([[9,1,3]]\) rotated surface code named for the sum of its 9 data qubits and 8 syndrome qubits. It uses the smallest number of qubits to perform error correction on a surface code with parallel syndrome extraction. |

Tensored-Ramanujan-complex product code | Code constructed in a similar way as the Ramanujan-complex product code, but whose construction utilizes tensor products of Ramanujan complexes in order to improve code distance from \(\sqrt{n}\log n\) to \(\sqrt{n}\text{polylog}(n)\). The utility of such tensor products comes from the fact that one of the Ramanujan complexes is a collective cosystolic expander as opposed to just a cosystolic expander. |

XYZ product code | A non-CSS QLDPC code constructed from three classical codes. The construction of an XYZ product code is similar to that of a hypergraph product code and related codes. The idea is that rather than taking a product of only two classical codes to produce a CSS code, a third classical code is considered, acting with Pauli-\(Y\) operators. |

## References

- [1]
- M. B. Hastings, “Weight Reduction for Quantum Codes”. 1611.03790
- [2]
- Shai Evra, Tali Kaufman, and Gilles Zémor, “Decodable quantum LDPC codes beyond the $\sqrt{n}$ distance barrier using high dimensional expanders”. 2004.07935