Bivariate bicycle (BB) code[1] 


One of several Abelian 2BGA codes which admit time-optimal syndrome measurement circuits that can be implemented in a two-layer architecture, a generalization of the square-lattice architecture optimal for the surface codes.

The qubit connectivity graph is not quite a 2D grid and is instead decomposable into two planar subgraphs of degree three; there exists an optimized layout minimizing Euclidean communication distance for check operators [2]. There are \(n\) \(X\) and \(Z\) check operators, with each one of weight six.


Admits an \(0.8\%\) pseudo-threshold for circuit-level noise under BP-OSD decoder [1] (cf. [3]).


When ancilla qubit overhead is included, the encoding rate surpasses that of the surface code. A general \([[n,k,d]]\) bivariate bicycle code requires \(n\) ancilla qubits for encoding, meaning that its ancilla-added encoding rate is \(k/2n\).

Transversal Gates

Logical Pauli operators and fold-transversal gates studied in Ref. [4].


Syndrome extraction circuit requires seven layers of CNOT gates regardless of code length. BP-OSD decoder [5] has been extended [1] to account for measurement errors (i.e., the circuit-based noise model [3]).Random and optimized syndrome extraction schedules from Ref. [1] are not distance preserving.Some long-range check operators can be measured less frequently than others [6].

Fault Tolerance

Fault-tolerant state initialization using lattice surgery techniques [7,8] and an ancillary surface code [1].




  • Kitaev surface code — Bivariate bicycle codes are on par with the surface code in terms of threshold, but admit a much higher ancilla-added encoding rate at the expense of having non-geometrically local weight-six check operators.


S. Bravyi et al., “High-threshold and low-overhead fault-tolerant quantum memory”, Nature 627, 778 (2024) arXiv:2308.07915 DOI
C. Poole et al., “Architecture for fast implementation of qLDPC codes with optimized Rydberg gates”, (2024) arXiv:2404.18809
A. G. Fowler, A. M. Stephens, and P. Groszkowski, “High-threshold universal quantum computation on the surface code”, Physical Review A 80, (2009) arXiv:0803.0272 DOI
J. N. Eberhardt and V. Steffan, “Logical Operators and Fold-Transversal Gates of Bivariate Bicycle Codes”, (2024) arXiv:2407.03973
P. Panteleev and G. Kalachev, “Degenerate Quantum LDPC Codes With Good Finite Length Performance”, Quantum 5, 585 (2021) arXiv:1904.02703 DOI
N. Berthusen et al., “Toward a 2D Local Implementation of Quantum LDPC Codes”, (2024) arXiv:2404.17676
L. Z. Cohen et al., “Low-overhead fault-tolerant quantum computing using long-range connectivity”, Science Advances 8, (2022) arXiv:2110.10794 DOI
Q. Xu et al., “Constant-Overhead Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computation with Reconfigurable Atom Arrays”, (2023) arXiv:2308.08648
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Cite as:
“Bivariate bicycle (BB) code”, The Error Correction Zoo (V. V. Albert & P. Faist, eds.), 2023.
@incollection{eczoo_qcga, title={Bivariate bicycle (BB) code}, booktitle={The Error Correction Zoo}, year={2023}, editor={Albert, Victor V. and Faist, Philippe}, url={} }
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“Bivariate bicycle (BB) code”, The Error Correction Zoo (V. V. Albert & P. Faist, eds.), 2023.