Oscillator-into-oscillator GKP code[1] 

Also known as GKP-stabilizer code.


Multimode GKP code with an infinite-dimensional logical space. Can be obtained by considering an \(n\)-mode GKP code with a finite-dimensional logical space, removing stabilizers such that the logical space becomes infinite dimensional, and applying a Gaussian circuit.

Simple oscillator-into-oscillator GKP codes include GKP-repetition codes and GKP two-mode-squeezing (TMS) codes [1]. Arbitrary oscillator-into-oscillator GKP codes can be reduced to generalized GKP TMS codes, and the optimal code design problem can be efficiently solved [2].


Oscillator-into-oscillator GKP codes to protect one or more modes against displacement noise using GKP resource states.


Gaussian circuit applied to \(k\) modes storing logical information and \(n-k\) modes initialized in a fixed GKP state.


Syndromes can be read off using ancilla modes, yielding partial information about noise in the logical modes that can then be used in an efficient ML decoding procedure [3].


Thresholds against displacement noise cannot be obtained without ideal (i.e., non-normalizable) codewords [4].


Introduction to and examples of oscillator-into-oscillator GKP codes [5].



  • Concatenated bosonic code — Oscillator-into-oscillator GKP oscillator-into-oscillator codes concantenated with GKP qubit-into-mode codes can outperform the more conventional concatenations of GKP codes with qubit stabilizer codes [3].
  • \(D_4\) hyper-diamond GKP code — \(D_4\) hyper-diamond GKP codes may be optimal for GKP stabilizer codes utilizing two ancilla modes [2].
  • Hexagonal GKP code — Hexagonal GKP codes may be optimal for GKP stabilizer codes utilizing one ancilla mode [2].
  • Homological number-phase code — Rotor analogues of \(k\)-into-\(n\) oscillator-into-oscillator GKP codes can be constructed by initializing \(n-k\) physical rotors in superpositions of phase states and applying a Clifford semigroup encoding circuit [7].
  • Analog stabilizer code — Analog stabilizer codes protect logical modes against arbitrarily large displacements on a few modes, while oscillator-into-oscillator GKP codes protect a finite-dimensional logical space against sufficiently small displacements in any number of modes. Encoding in analog-stabilizer (oscillator-into-oscillator GKP) codes can be done by a Gaussian operation acting on a tensor product of an arbitrary state in the first mode and position states (GKP states) on the remaining modes. Protection of logical modes against small displacements cannot be done using only Gaussian resources [810], so oscillator-into-oscillator GKP codes can be thought of as analog stabilizer encodings utilizing non-Gaussian GKP resource states.


K. Noh, S. M. Girvin, and L. Jiang, “Encoding an Oscillator into Many Oscillators”, Physical Review Letters 125, (2020) arXiv:1903.12615 DOI
J. Wu, A. J. Brady, and Q. Zhuang, “Optimal encoding of oscillators into more oscillators”, Quantum 7, 1082 (2023) arXiv:2212.11970 DOI
Y. Xu et al., “Qubit-Oscillator Concatenated Codes: Decoding Formalism and Code Comparison”, PRX Quantum 4, (2023) arXiv:2209.04573 DOI
L. Hanggli and R. Konig, “Oscillator-to-Oscillator Codes Do Not Have a Threshold”, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 68, 1068 (2022) arXiv:2102.05545 DOI
V. V. Albert, “Bosonic coding: introduction and use cases”, (2022) arXiv:2211.05714
J. Conrad, J. Eisert, and F. Arzani, “Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill codes: A lattice perspective”, Quantum 6, 648 (2022) arXiv:2109.14645 DOI
Y. Xu, Y. Wang, and V. V. Albert, “Clifford operations and homological codes for rotors and oscillators”, (2024) arXiv:2311.07679
C. Vuillot et al., “Quantum error correction with the toric Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill code”, Physical Review A 99, (2019) arXiv:1810.00047 DOI
J. Eisert, S. Scheel, and M. B. Plenio, “Distilling Gaussian States with Gaussian Operations is Impossible”, Physical Review Letters 89, (2002) arXiv:quant-ph/0204052 DOI
J. Niset, J. Fiurášek, and N. J. Cerf, “No-Go Theorem for Gaussian Quantum Error Correction”, Physical Review Letters 102, (2009) arXiv:0811.3128 DOI
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Zoo Code ID: gkp-stabilizer

Cite as:
“Oscillator-into-oscillator GKP code”, The Error Correction Zoo (V. V. Albert & P. Faist, eds.), 2022. https://errorcorrectionzoo.org/c/gkp-stabilizer
@incollection{eczoo_gkp-stabilizer, title={Oscillator-into-oscillator GKP code}, booktitle={The Error Correction Zoo}, year={2022}, editor={Albert, Victor V. and Faist, Philippe}, url={https://errorcorrectionzoo.org/c/gkp-stabilizer} }
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“Oscillator-into-oscillator GKP code”, The Error Correction Zoo (V. V. Albert & P. Faist, eds.), 2022. https://errorcorrectionzoo.org/c/gkp-stabilizer

Github: https://github.com/errorcorrectionzoo/eczoo_data/edit/main/codes/quantum/oscillators/stabilizer/lattice/gkp-stabilizer.yml.