Modular-qudit stabilizer code[1] 


An \(((n,K,d))_q\) modular-qudit code whose logical subspace is the joint eigenspace of commuting qudit Pauli operators forming the code's stabilizer group \(\mathsf{S}\). Traditionally, the logical subspace is the joint \(+1\) eigenspace, and the stabilizer group does not contain \(e^{i \phi} I\) for any \(\phi \neq 0\). The distance \(d\) is the minimum weight of a qudit Pauli string that implements a nontrivial logical operation in the code.

A modular-qudit stabilizer code encoding an integer number of qudits (\(K=q^k\)) is denoted as \([[n,k]]_{\mathbb{Z}_q}\) or \([[n,k,d]]_{\mathbb{Z}_q}\). For composite \(q\), such codes need not encode an integer number of qudits, with \(K=q^n/|\mathsf{S}|\) [2]. This is because \(|{\mathsf{S}}|\) need not be a power of \(q\), as group generators may have different orders. As a result, \([[n,k,d]]\) notation is often used with non-integer \(k=\log_q K\). Prime-qudit stabilizer codes, where \(q=p\) for some prime \(p\), do not suffer from this issue and encode \(n-k\) logical qudits, with \(K=p^{n-k}\).

Each code can be represented by a check matrix (a.k.a. stabilizer generator matrix) \(H=(A|B)\), where each row \((a|b)\) is the \(q\)-ary symplectic representation of a stabilizer generator. The check matrix can be brought into standard form via Gaussian elimination [2].

One can switch between stabilizer codes by appending another Abelian subgroup of the Pauli group to the stabilizer group and taking the center of the resulting larger group.

Code switching or code deformation: Code switching is a map between stabilizer codes that is done using a stabilizer group \(\mathsf{F}\) of the \(n\)-qudit Pauli group, \begin{align} \mathsf{S}\to\mathsf{N}_{\left\langle \mathsf{S},\mathsf{F}\right\rangle }\left(\mathsf{F}\right)~, \tag*{(1)}\end{align} where \(\mathsf{Z}\) denotes taking the center of a group. Code switching may not preserve the logical information and instead implement logical measurements; conditions on \(\mathsf{S}\) and \(\mathsf{F}\) such that qubit stabilizer code switching preserves logical information are derived in [3; Prop. II.1]. Clifford operations and Pauli measurements can be expressed as sequences of code switching [4]. In the context of stabilizer codes realizing Abelian topological phases, code switching implements anyon condensation of any anyons represented by operators in the group \(\mathsf{F}\).

Stabilizer codewords for odd qudit dimension have a specific form per the finite-dimensional version of Hudson's theorem [5]. General modular-qudit stabilizer codes can equivalently [6] be defined using graphs, yielding an analytical form for the codewords [7].


Detects errors on up to \(d-1\) qudits, and corrects erasure errors on up to \(d-1\) qudits. More generally, define the normalizer \(\mathsf{N(S)}\) of \(\mathsf{S}\) to be the set of all Pauli operators that commute with all \(S\in\mathsf{S}\). A stabilizer code can correct a Pauli error set \({\mathcal{E}}\) if and only if \(E^\dagger F \notin \mathsf{N(S)}\setminus \mathsf{S}\) for all \(E,F \in {\mathcal{E}}\).


The structure of stabilizer codes allows for syndrome-based decoding, where errors are corrected based on the results of stabilizer measurements (syndromes).Trellis decoder for prime-dimensional qudits, which builds a compact representation of the algebraic structure of the normalizer \(\mathsf{N(S)}\) [8].


A standardized definition of the qudit stabilizer group is developed in [2].The number of modular-qudit stabilizer codes was determined in Refs. [5,9].


  • Qudit CWS code — Qudit CWS codes are a generalization of modular-qudit stabilizer codes [10; Corr. 4-5].
  • Stabilizer code
  • Quantum Lego code — Modular-qudit stabilizer codes are quantum Lego codes built out of atomic blocks such as the 2-qudit repetition code, single-qudit trivial stabilizer codes, and tensor-products of the \(|0\rangle\) state.


  • Qubit stabilizer code — Modular-qudit stabilizer codes for \(q=2\) correspond to qubit stabilizer codes. Modular-qudit stabilizer codes for prime-dimensional qudits \(q=p\) inherit most of the features of qubit stabilizer codes, including encoding an integer number of qudits and a Pauli group with a unique number of generators. Conversely, qubit codes can be extended to modular-qudit codes by decorating appropriate generators with powers. For example, \([[4,2,2]]\) qubit code generators can be adjusted to \(ZZZZ\) and \(XX^{-1} XX^{-1}\). A systematic procedure extending a qubit code to prime-qudit codes involves putting its generator matrix into local-dimension-invariant (LDI) form [11]. Various bounds exist on the distance of the resulting codes [12,13].
  • Frobenius code
  • Modular-qudit CSS code — Modular-qudit CSS codes are modular-qudit stabilizer codes whose stabilizer groups admit a generating set of pure-\(X\) and pure-\(Z\) Pauli strings. Additionally, any \([[n,k,d]]_{\mathbb{Z}_q}\) stabilizer code can be mapped onto a \([[2n,2k,\geq d]]_{\mathbb{Z}_q}\) CSS code, with the mapping preserving geometric locality of a code up to a constant factor [14] (see also [15]).
  • \([[5,1,3]]_{\mathbb{Z}_q}\) modular-qudit code
  • Qudit cubic code


  • \(q\)-ary code over \(\mathbb{Z}_q\) — Modular-qudit stabilizer codes are the closest quantum analogues of additive codes over \(\mathbb{Z}_q\) because addition in the ring corresponds to multiplication of stabilizers in the quantum case.
  • Analog stabilizer code — Prime-qudit stabilizer codes can be converted into analog stabilizer codes whose distance is at least as large as that of the original code [16].
  • Subsystem modular-qudit stabilizer code — Subsystem modular-qudit stabilizer codes reduce to modular-qudit stabilizer codes when there are no gauge qudits.
  • Galois-qudit stabilizer code — Recalling that \(q=p^m\), Galois-qudit stabilizer codes can also be treated as prime-qudit stabilizer codes on \(mn\) qudits, giving \(k=nm-r\) [17]. The case \(m=1\) reduces to conventional prime-qudit stabilizer codes on \(n\) qudits.


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“Modular-qudit stabilizer code”, The Error Correction Zoo (V. V. Albert & P. Faist, eds.), 2022.
@incollection{eczoo_qudit_stabilizer, title={Modular-qudit stabilizer code}, booktitle={The Error Correction Zoo}, year={2022}, editor={Albert, Victor V. and Faist, Philippe}, url={} }
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“Modular-qudit stabilizer code”, The Error Correction Zoo (V. V. Albert & P. Faist, eds.), 2022.