Here is a list of approximate quantum codes.

Code | Description |
---|---|

2D bosonization code | A mapping between a 2D lattice of qubits and a 2D lattice quadratic Hamiltonian of Majorana modes. This family also includes a super-compact fermionic encoding with a qubit-to-fermion ratio of \(1.25\) [1; Table I]. |

2D color code | Color code defined on a two-dimensional planar graph. Each face hosts two stabilizer generators, a Pauli-\(X\) and a Pauli-\(Z\) string acting on all the qubits of the face. |

2D hyperbolic surface code | Hyperbolic surface codes based on a tessellation of a closed 2D manifold with a hyperbolic geometry (i.e., non-Euclidean geometry, e.g., saddle surfaces when defined on a 2D plane). |

2D lattice stabilizer code | Lattice stabilizer code in two spatial dimensions. |

2T-qutrit code | Two-mode qutrit code constructed out of superpositions of coherent states whose amplitudes make up the binary tetrahedral group \(2T\). |

3D bosonization code | A mapping that maps a 3D lattice quadratic Hamiltonian of Majorana modes into a lattice of qubits which realize a \(\mathbb{Z}_2\) gauge theory with a particular Gauss law. |

3D color code | Color code defined on a four-valent four-colorable tiling of 3D space. Logical dimension is determined by the genus of the underlying surface (for closed surfaces) and types of boundaries (for open surfaces). |

3D fermionic surface code | A non-CSS 3D Kitaev surface code that realizes \(\mathbb{Z}_2\) gauge theory with an emergent fermion, i.e., the fermionic-charge bosonic-loop (FcBl) phase [2]. The model can be defined on a cubic lattice in several ways [3; Eq. (D45-46)]. Realizations on other lattices also exist [4,5]. |

3D lattice stabilizer code | Lattice stabilizer code in three spatial dimensions. Qubit codes are conjectured to admit either fracton phases or abelian topological phases that are equivalent to multiple copies of the 3D surface code and/or the 3D fermionic surface code via a local constant-depth Clifford circuit [3]. |

3D subsystem surface code | Subsystem generalization of the surface code on a 3D cubic lattice with gauge-group generators of weight at most three. |

3D surface code | A generalization of the Kitaev surface code defined on a 3D lattice. |

Abelian LP code | An LP code for Abelian group \(G\). The case of \(G\) being a cyclic group is a GB code (a.k.a. a quasi-cyclic LP code) [6; Sec. III.E]. A particular family with \(G=\mathbb{Z}_{\ell}\) yields codes with constant rate and nearly constant distance. |

Abelian TQD stabilizer code | Modular-qudit stabilizer code whose codewords realize 2D modular gapped Abelian topological order. The corresponding anyon theory is defined by an Abelian group and a Type-III group cocycle that can be decomposed as a product of Type-I and Type-II group cocycles; see [7; Sec. IV.A]. Abelian TQDs realize all modular gapped Abelian topological orders [7]. Many Abelian TQD code Hamiltonians were originally formulated as commuting-projector models [8]. |

Abelian quantum-double stabilizer code | Modular-qudit stabilizer code whose codewords realize 2D modular gapped Abelian topological order with trivial cocycle. The corresponding anyon theory is defined by an Abelian group. All such codes can be realized by a stack of modular-qudit surface codes because all Abelian groups are Kronecker products of cyclic groups. |

Abelian topological code | Code whose codewords realize topological order associated with an Abelian anyon theory. In 2D, this is equivalent to a unitary braided fusion category which is also an Abelian group under fusion [9]. Unless otherwise noted, the phases discussed are bosonic. |

Amplitude-damping (AD) code | Block quantum code on either qubits or bosonic modes that is designed to detect and correct qubit or bosonic AD errors, respectively. |

Amplitude-damping CWS code | Self-complementary CWS code that is designed to detect and correct AD errors. |

Analog stabilizer code | An oscillator-into-oscillator stabilizer code encoding \(k\) logical modes into \(n\) physical modes. An \(((n,k,d))_{\mathbb{R}}\) analog stabilizer code is denoted as \([[n,k,d]]_{\mathbb{R}}\), where \(d\) is the code's distance. |

Analog surface code | An analog CSS version of the Kitaev surface code. |

Analog-cluster-state code | A code based on a continuous-variable (CV), or analog, cluster state. Such a state can be used to perform MBQC of logical modes, which substitutes the temporal dimension necessary for decoding a conventional code with a spatial dimension. The exact analog cluster state is non-normalizable, so approximate constructs have to be considered. |

Approximate quantum error-correcting code (AQECC) | Encodes quantum information so that it is possible to approximately recover that information from noise up to an error bound in recovery. |

Approximate secret-sharing code | A family of \( [[n,k,d]]_q \) CSS codes approximately correcting errors on up to \(\lfloor (n-1)/2 \rfloor\) qubits, i.e., with approximate distance approaching the no-cloning bound \(n/2\). Constructed using a non-degenerate CSS code, such as a polynomial quantum code, and a classical authentication scheme. The code can be viewed as an \(t\)-error tolerant secret sharing scheme. Since the code yields a small logical subspace using large registers that contain both classical and quantum information, it is not useful for practical error correction problems, but instead demonstrates the power of approximate quantum error correction. |

Asymmetric quantum code | Quantum systems can be roughly characterized by two types of noise, a bit-flip noise that maps canonical basis states into each other, and a phase-flip noise that induces relative phases between superpositions of such basis states. A code cannot protect against both types of noise arbitrarily well, and there is a tradeoff between the two types of protection. An asymmetric quantum code is one that performs much better against one type of noise than the other type. Such codes typically have tunable distances against each noise type and include CSS codes, GKP codes, and QSCs. |

Auxiliary qubit mapping (AQM) code | A concatenation of the JW transformation code with a qubit stabilizer code. |

Balanced product (BP) code | Family of CSS quantum codes based on products of two classical codes which share common symmetries. The balanced product can be understood as taking the usual tensor/hypergraph product and then factoring out the symmetries factored. This reduces the overall number of physical qubits \(n\), while, under certain circumstances, leaving the number of encoded qubits \(k\) and the code distance \(d\) invariant. This leads to a more favourable encoding rate \(k/n\) and normalized distance \(d/n\) compared to the tensor/hypergraph product. |

Ball color code | A color code defined on a \(D\)-dimensional colex. This family includes hypercube color codes (color codes defined on balls constructed from hyperoctahedra) and 3D ball color codes (color codes defined on duals of certain Archimedean solids). |

Ball-Verstraete-Cirac (BVC) code | A 2D fermion-into-qubit encoding that builds upon the JW transformation encoding by eliminating the weight-\(O(n)\) \(X\)-type string at the expense introducing additional qubits. See [1; Sec. IV.B] for details. |

Bicycle code | A CSS code whose stabilizer generator matrix blocks are \(H_{X}=H_{Z}=(A|A^T)\), where \(A\) is a circulant matrix. The fact that \(A\) commutes with its transpose ensures that the CSS condition is satisfied. Bicycle codes are the first QLDPC codes. |

Binary dihedral PI code | Multi-qubit code designed to realize gates from the binary dihedral group transversally. Can also be interpreted as a single-spin code. The codespace projection is a projection onto an irrep of the binary dihedral group \( \mathsf{BD}_{2N} = \langle\omega I, X, P\rangle \) of order \(8N\), where \( \omega \) is a \( 2N \)th root of unity, and \( P = \text{diag} ( 1, \omega^2) \). |

Binomial code | Bosonic rotation codes designed to approximately protect against errors consisting of powers of raising and lowering operators up to some maximum power. Binomial codes can be thought of as spin-coherent states embedded into an oscillator [10]. |

Bivariate bicycle (BB) code | One of several Abelian 2BGA codes which admit time-optimal syndrome measurement circuits that can be implemented in a two-layer architecture, a generalization of the square-lattice architecture optimal for the surface codes. |

Block quantum code | A code constructed in a multi-partite quantum system, i.e., a physical space consisting of a tensor product of \(n > 1\) identical factors called subsystems, parties, or bodies. The subsystems include qubits, modular qudits, Galois qudits, oscillators, or more general groups. For finite dimensional codes, the dimension of the underlying subsystem is denoted by \(q\) and is sometimes called the local dimension. |

Bosonic \(q\)-ary expansion | A one-to-one mapping between basis states on \(n\) prime-dimensional qudits (of dimension \(q=p\)) and the subspace of the first \(p^n\) single-mode Fock states. While this mapping offers a way to map qudits into a single mode, noise models for the two code families induce different notions of locality and thus qualitatively different physical interpretations [11]. |

Bosonic code | Encodes logical Hilbert space, finite- or infinite-dimensional, into a physical Hilbert space that contains at least one oscillator (a.k.a. bosonic mode or qumode). |

Bosonic rotation code | A single-mode Fock-state bosonic code whose codespace is preserved by a phase-space rotation by a multiple of \(2\pi/N\) for some \(N\). The rotation symmetry ensures that encoded states have support only on every \(N^{\textrm{th}}\) Fock state. For example, single-mode Fock-state codes for \(N=2\) encoding a qubit admit basis states that are, respectively, supported on Fock state sets \(\{|0\rangle,|4\rangle,|8\rangle,\cdots\}\) and \(\{|2\rangle,|6\rangle,|10\rangle,\cdots\}\). |

Bosonic stabilizer code | Bosonic code whose codespace is defined as the common \(+1\) eigenspace of a group of mutually commuting displacement operators. Displacements form the stabilizers of the code, and have continuous eigenvalues, in contrast with the discrete set of eigenvalues of qubit stabilizers. As a result, exact codewords are non-normalizable, so approximate constructions have to be considered. |

Bosonization code | A mapping that maps a \(D\)-dimensional lattice quadratic Hamiltonian of Majorana modes into a lattice of qubits. The resulting qubit code can realize various topological phases, depending on the initial Majorana-mode Hamiltonian and its symmetries. |

Branching MERA code | Qubit stabilizer code whose encoding circuit corresponds to a branching MERA tensor network [12]. |

Bravyi-Kitaev superfast (BKSF) code | An single error-detecting fermion-into-qubit encoding defined on 2D qubit lattice whose stabilizers are associated with loops in the lattice. The code can be generalized to a single error-correcting code (i.e., with distance three) on graphs of degree \(\geq 6\) [13]. |

Bravyi-Kitaev transformation (BKT) code | A fermion-into-qubit encoding that maps Majorana operators into Pauli strings of weight \(\lceil \log (n+1) \rceil\). The code can be reformulated in terms of Fenwick trees [14], and the Pauli-string weight can be further optimized to yield the segmented Bravyi-Kitaev (SBK) transformation code [15]. |

Brown-Fawzi random Clifford-circuit code | An \([[n,k]]\) stabilizer code whose encoder is a random Clifford circuit of depth \(O(\log^3 n)\). |

CSS-T code | A CSS code for which a physical transversal \(T\) gate is either the identity (up to a global phase) or a logical gate. CSS-T codes are constructed from a pair of linear binary codes via the CSS construction, with the pair satisfying certain conditions [16]. |

Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) stabilizer code | A stabilizer code admitting a set of stabilizer generators that are either \(Z\)-type or \(X\)-type operators. The two sets of stabilizer generators can often, but not always, be related to parts of a chain complex over the appropriate ring or field. |

Camara-Ollivier-Tillich code | A Hermitian qubit QLDPC code whose stabilizer generator matrix is constructed using two nested subgroups of \(GF(4)^n\). |

Cat code | Rotation-symmetric bosonic Fock-state code encoding a \(q\)-dimensional qudit into one oscillator which utilizes a constellation of \(q(S+1)\) coherent states distributed equidistantly around a circle in phase space of radius \(\alpha\). |

Category-based quantum code | Encodes a finite-dimensional logical Hilbert space into a physical Hilbert space associated with a finite category. Codes on modular fusion categories are often associated with a particular topological quantum field theory (TQFT), as the data of such theories is described by such categories. |

Chamon model code | A foliated type-I fracton non-CSS code defined on a cubic lattice using one weight-eight stabilizer generator acting on the eight vertices of each cube in the lattice [3; Eq. (D38)]. |

Chebyshev code | Single-mode bosonic Fock-state code that can be used for error-corrected sensing of a signal Hamiltonian \({\hat n}^s\), where \({\hat n}\) is the occupation number operator. Codewords for the \(s\)th-order Chebyshev code are \begin{align} \begin{split} \ket{\overline 0} &=\sum_{k \text{~even}}^{[0,s]} \tilde{c}_k \Ket{\left\lfloor M\sin^2\left( k\pi/{2s}\right) \right\rfloor},\\ \ket{\overline 1} &= \sum_{k \text{~odd}}^{[0,s]} \tilde{c}_k \Ket{\left\lfloor M\sin^2 \left(k\pi/{2s}\right) \right\rfloor}, \end{split} \tag*{(1)}\end{align} where \(\tilde{c}_k>0\) can be obtained by solving a system of order \(O(s^2)\) linear equations, and where \(\lfloor x \rfloor\) is the floor function. The code approaches optimality for sensing the signal Hamiltonian as \(M\) increases. |

Checkerboard model code | A foliated type-I fracton code defined on a cubic lattice that admits weight-eight \(X\)- and \(Z\)-type stabilizer generators on the eight vertices of each cube in the lattice. |

Chen-Hsin invertible-order code | A geometrically local commuting-projector code that realizes beyond-group-cohomology invertible topological phases in arbitrary dimensions. Instances of the code in 4D realize the 3D \(\mathbb{Z}_2\) gauge theory with fermionic charge and either bosonic (FcBl) or fermionic (FcFl) loop excitations at their boundaries [2,17]; see Ref. [18] for a different lattice-model formulation of the FcBl boundary code. |

Chiral semion Walker-Wang model code | A 3D lattice modular-qudit stabilizer code with qudit dimension \(q=4\) whose low-energy excitations on boundaries realize the chiral semion topological order. The model admits 2D chiral semion topological order at one of its surfaces [19,20]. The corresponding phase can also be realized via a non-stabilizer Hamiltonian [21]. |

Chiral semion subsystem code | Modular-qudit subsystem stabilizer code with qudit dimension \(q=4\) that is characterized by the chiral semion topological phase. Admits a set of geometrically local stabilizer generators on a torus. |

Chuang-Leung-Yamamoto (CLY) code | Bosonic Fock-state code that encodes \(k\) qubits into \(n\) oscillators, with each oscillator restricted to having at most \(N\) excitations. Codewords are superpositions of oscillator Fock states which have exactly \(N\) total excitations, and are either uniform (i.e., balanced) superpositions or unbalanced superpositions. |

Circuit-to-Hamiltonian approximate code | Approximate qubit block code that forms the ground-state space of a frustration-free Hamiltonian with non-commuting terms. Its distance and logical-qubit number are both of order \(\Omega(n/\log^5 n)\) [22; Thm. 3.1]. The code is an approximate non-stabilizer QLWC code since the Hamiltonian consists of non-commuting weight-ten non-Pauli projectors, with each qubit acted on by order \(O(\text{polylog}(n)\) projectors. |

Classical-product code | A CSS code constructed by separately constructing the \(X\) and \(Z\) check matrices using product constructions from classical codes. A particular \([[512,174,8]]\) code performed well [23] against erasure and depolarizing noise when compared to other notable CSS codes, such as the asymptotically good quantum Tanner codes. These codes have been generalized to the intersecting subset code family [24]. |

Clifford group-representation QSC | QSC whose projection is onto a copy of an irreducible representation of the single-qubit Clifford group, taken as the binary octahedral subgroup of the group \(SU(2)\) of Gaussian rotations. Its codewords consist of non-uniform superpositions of 48 coherent states. |

Clifford spin code | A single-spin code designed to realize a discrete group of gates using \(SU(2)\) rotations. Codewords are subspaces of a spin's Hilbert space that house irreducible representations (irreps) of a discrete subgroup of \(SU(2)\). |

Clifford subgroup-orbit QSC | A \(((2^r,2,2-\sqrt{2},8))\) QSC for \(r \geq 2\) constructed using the real-Clifford subgroup-orbit code. Logical constellations are constructed by applying elements of an index-two subgroup of the real Clifford group, when taken as a subgroup of the orthogonal group [25] to \(2\) different vectors on the complex sphere. The code is known as the Witting code for \(r=2\) because its two logical constellations form vertices of Witting polytopes. |

Clifford-deformed surface code (CDSC) | A generally non-CSS derivative of the surface code defined by applying a constant-depth Clifford circuit to the original (CSS) surface code. Unlike the surface code, CDSCs include codes whose thresholds and subthreshold performance are enhanced under noise biased towards dephasing. Examples of CDSCs include the XY code, XZZX code, and random CDSCs. |

Cluster-state code | A code based on a cluster state and often used in measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) [26] (a.k.a. one-way quantum processing), which substitutes the temporal dimension necessary for decoding a conventional code with a spatial dimension. This is done by encoding the computation into the features of the cluster state''s graph. |

Codeword stabilized (CWS) code | A code defined using a cluster state and a set of \(Z\)-type Pauli strings defined by a binary classical code. |

Coherent-parity-check (CPC) code | A qubit stabilizer code for which two binary linear codes are used to directly construct encoding and decoding circuits against \(X\)- and \(Z\)-type errors, respectively, via ZX calculus [27,28]. CPC codes can be obtained from numerical search [29]. |

Coherent-state constellation code | Qudit-into-oscillator code whose codewords can succinctly be expressed as superpositions of a countable set of coherent states that is called a constellation. Some useful constellations form a group (see gkp, cat or \(2T\)-qutrit codes) while others make up a Gaussian quadrature rule [30,31]. |

Color code | Member of a family of qubit CSS codes defined on particular \(D\)-dimensional graphs. |

Combinatorial PI code | A member of a family of PI quantum codes whose correction properties are derived from solving a family of combinatorial identities. The code encodes one logical qubit in superpositions of Dicke states whose coefficients are square roots of ratios of binomial coefficients. |

Commuting-projector Hamiltonian code | Hamiltonian-based code whose Hamiltonian terms can be expressed as orthogonal projectors (i.e., Hermitian operators with eigenvalues 0 or 1) that commute with each other. |

Concatenated GKP code | A concatenated code whose outer code is a GKP code. In other words, a bosonic code that can be thought of as a concatenation of an arbitrary inner code and another bosonic outer code. Most examples encode physical qubits of an inner stabilizer code into the square-lattice GKP code. |

Concatenated Steane code | A member of the family of \([[7^m,1,3^m]]\) CSS codes, each of which is a recursive level-\(m\) concatenatenation of the Steane code. This family is one of the first to admit a concatenated threshold [32–36]. |

Concatenated bosonic code | A concatenated code whose outer code is a bosonic code. In other words, a bosonic code that can be thought of as a concatenation of a possibly non-bosonic inner code and another bosonic outer code. |

Concatenated cat code | A concatenated code whose outer code is a cat code. In other words, a qubit code that can be thought of as a concatenation of an arbitrary inner code and another cat outer code. Most examples encode physical qubits of an inner stabilizer code into the two-component cat code. |

Concatenated quantum code | A combination of two quantum codes, an inner code \(C\) and an outer code \(C^\prime\), where the physical subspace used for the inner code consists of the logical subspace of the outer code. In other words, first one encodes in the inner code \(C^\prime\), and then one encodes each of the physical registers of \(C^\prime\) in an outer code \(C\). An inner \(C = ((n_1,K,d_1))_{q_1}\) and outer \(C^\prime = ((n_2,q_1,d_2))_{q_2}\) block quantum code yield an \(((n_1 n_2, K, d \geq d_1d_2))_{q_2}\) concatenated block quantum code [37]. |

Concatenated qubit code | A concatenated code whose outer code is a qubit code. In other words, a qubit code that can be thought of as a concatenation of an arbitrary inner code and another qubit outer code. An inner \(C = ((n_1,K,d_1))\) and outer \(C^\prime = ((n_2,2,d_2))\) qubit code yield an \(((n_1 n_2, K, d \geq d_1d_2))\) concatenated qubit code. |

Conformal-field theory (CFT) code | Approximate code whose codewords lie in the low-energy subspace of a conformal field theory, e.g., the quantum Ising model at its critical point [38,39]. Its encoding is argued to perform source coding (i.e., compression) as well as channel coding (i.e., error correction) [38]. |

Constant-excitation (CE) code | Code whose codewords lie in an excited-state eigenspace of a Hamiltonian governing the total energy or total number of excitations of the underlying quantum system. For qubit codes, such a Hamiltonian is often the total spin Hamiltonian, \(H=\sum_i Z_i\). For spin-\(S\) codes, this generalizes to \(H=\sum_i J_z^{(i)}\), where \(J_z\) is the spin-\(S\) \(Z\)-operator. For bosonic codes, such as Fock-state codes, codewords are often in an eigenspace with eigenvalue \(N>0\) of the total excitation or energy Hamiltonian, \(H=\sum_i \hat{n}_i\). |

Covariant block quantum code | A block code on \(n\) subsystems that admits a group \(G\) of transversal gates. The group has to be finite for finite-dimensional codes due to the Eastin-Knill theorem. Continuous-\(G\) covariant codes, necessarily infinite-dimensional, are relevant to error correction of quantum reference frames [40] and error-corrected parameter estimation. |

Crystalline-circuit qubit code | Code dynamically generated by unitary Clifford circuits defined on a lattice with some crystalline symmetry. A notable example is the circuit defined on a rotated square lattice with vertices corresponding to iSWAP gates and edges decorated by \(R_X[\pi/2]\), a single-qubit rotation by \(\pi/2\) around the \(X\)-axis. This circuit is invariant under space-time translations by a unit cell \((T, a)\) and all transformations of the square lattice point group \(D_4\). |

Cubic honeycomb color code | 3D color code defined on a four-colorable bitruncated cubic honeycomb uniform tiling. |

Cubic theory code | A geometrically local commuting-projector code defined on triangulations of lattices in arbitrary spatial dimensions. Its code Hamiltonian terms include Pauli-\(Z\) operators and products of Pauli-\(X\) operators and \(CZ\) gates. The Hamiltonian realizes higher-form \(\mathbb{Z}_2^3\) gauge theories whose excitations obey non-Abelian Ising-like fusion rules. |

Cyclic quantum code | A block quantum code such that cyclic permutations of the subsystems leave the codespace invariant. In other words, the automorphism group of the code contains the cyclic group \(\mathbb{Z}_n\). |

Derby-Klassen (DK) code | A fermion-into-qubit code defined on regular tilings with maximum degree 4 whose stabilizers are associated with loops in the tiling. The code outperforms several other encodings in terms of encoding rate [41; Table I]. It has been extended for models with several modes per site [42]. |

Diatomic molecular code | Approximate quantum code that encodes a qudit in the finite-dimensional Hilbert space of a rigid body with \(SO(2)\) symmetry (e.g., a heteronuclear diatomic molecule). This state space is the space of normalized functions on the two-sphere, consisting of a direct sum of all non-negative integer angular momenta. Ideal codewords may not be normalizable because the space is infinite-dimensional, so approximate versions have to be constructed in practice. |

Dihedral \(G=D_m\) quantum-double code | Quantum-double code whose codewords realize \(G=D_m\) topological order associated with a \(2m\)-element dihedral group \(D_m\). Includes the simplest non-Abelian order \(D_3 = S_3\) associated with the permutation group of three objects. The code can be realized as the ground-state subspace of the quantum double model, defined for \(D_m\)-valued qudits [43]. An alternative qubit-based formulation realizes the gauged \(G=\mathbb{Z}_3^2\) twisted quantum double phase [44], which is the same topological order as the \(G=D_4\) quantum double [45,46]. |

Dijkgraaf-Witten gauge theory code | A code whose codewords realize \(D\)-dimensional lattice Dijkgraaf-Witten gauge theory [47,48] for a finite group \(G\) and a \(D+1\)-cocycle \(\omega\) in the cohomology class \(H^{D+1}(G,U(1))\). When the cocycle is non-trivial, the gauge theory is called a twisted gauge theory. For trivial cocycles in 3D, the model can be called a quantum triple model, in allusion to being a 3D version of the quantum double model. There exist lattice-model formulations in arbitrary spatial dimension [49] as well as explicitly in 3D [50,51]. |

Dinur-Hsieh-Lin-Vidick (DHLV) code | A family of asymptotically good QLDPC codes which are related to expander LP codes in that the roles of the check operators and physical qubits are exchanged. |

Dinur-Lin-Vidick (DLV) code | Member of a family of quantum locally testable codes constructed using cubical chain complexes, which are \(t\)-order extensions of the complexes underlying expander codes (\(t=1\)) and expander lifted-product codes (\(t=2\)). |

Distance-balanced code | Galois-qudit CSS code constructed from a CSS code and a classical code using a distance-balancing procedure based on a generalized homological product. The initial code is said to be unbalanced, i.e., tailored to noise biased toward either bit- or phase-flip errors, and the procedure can result in a code that is treats both types of errors on a more equal footing. The original distance-balancing procedure [52], later generalized [53; Thm. 4.2], can yield QLDPC codes [52; Thm. 1]. |

Double-semion stabilizer code | A 2D lattice modular-qudit stabilizer code with qudit dimension \(q=4\) that is characterized by the 2D double semion topological phase. The code can be obtained from the \(\mathbb{Z}_4\) surface code by condensing the anyon \(e^2 m^2\) [54]. Originally formulated as the ground-state space of a Hamiltonian with non-commuting terms [55], which can be extended to other spatial dimensions [56], and later as a commuting-projector code [8,57]. |

Dual-rail quantum code | Two-mode bosonic code encoding a logical qubit in Fock states with one excitation. The logical-zero state is represented by \(|10\rangle\), while the logical-one state is represented by \(|01\rangle\). This encoding is often realized in temporal or spatial modes, corresponding to a time-bin or frequency-bin encoding. Two different types of photon polarization can also be used. |

Dynamical automorphism (DA) code | Dynamically-generated stabilizer-based code whose (not necessarily periodic) sequence of few-body measurements implements state initialization, logical gates and error detection. |

Dynamically-generated QECC | Block quantum code whose natural definition is in terms of a many-body scaling limit of a local dynamical process. Such processes, which are often non-deterministic, update the code structure and can include random unitary evolution or non-commuting projective measurements. |

Eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) code | An \(n\)-qubit approximate code whose codespace is formed by eigenstates of a translationally-invariant quantum many-body system which satisfies the Eigenstate Thermalization Hypothesis (ETH). ETH ensures that codewords cannot be locally distinguished in the thermodynamic limit. Relevant many-body systems include 1D non-interacting spin chains or frustration-free systems such as Motzkin chains and Heisenberg models. |

Error-corrected sensing code | Code that can be obtained via an optimization procedure that ensures correction against a set \(\cal{E}\) of errors as well as guaranteeting optimal precision in locally estimating a parameter using a noiseless ancilla. For tensor-product spaces consisting of \(n\) subsystems (e.g., qubits, modular qudits, or Galois qudits), the procedure can yield a code whose parameter estimation precision satisfies Heisenberg scaling, i.e., scales quadratically with the number \(n\) of subsystems. |

Expander LP code | Family of \(G\)-lifted product codes constructed using two random classical Tanner codes defined on expander graphs [58]. For certain parameters, this construction yields the first asymptotically good QLDPC codes. Classical codes resulting from this construction are one of the first two families of \(c^3\)-LTCs. |

Fermion code | Finite-dimensional quantum error-correcting code encoding a logical (qudit or fermionic) Hilbert space into a physical Fock space of fermionic modes. Codes are typically described using Majorana operators, which are linear combinations of fermionic creation and annihilation operators [59]. |

Fermion-into-qubit code | Qubit stabilizer code encoding a logical fermionic Hilbert space into a physical space of \(n\) qubits. Such codes are primarily intended for simulating fermionic systems on quantum computers, and some of them have error-detecting, correcting, and transmuting properties. |

Fiber-bundle code | A CSS code constructed by combining one code as the base and another as the fiber of a fiber bundle. In particular, taking a random LDPC code as the base and a cyclic repetition code as the fiber yields, after distance balancing, a QLDPC code with distance of order \(\Omega(n^{3/5}\text{polylog}(n))\) and rate of order \(\Omega(n^{-2/5}\text{polylog}(n))\) is obtained. |

Fibonacci fractal spin-liquid code | A fractal type-I fracton CSS code defined on a cubic lattice [3; Eq. (D23)]. |

Fibonacci string-net code | Quantum error correcting code associated with the Levin-Wen string-net model with the Fibonacci input category, admitting two types of encodings. |

Finite-dimensional quantum error-correcting code | Encodes quantum information in a \(K\)-dimensional (logical) subspace of an \(N\)-dimensional (physical) Hilbert space such that it is possible to recover said information from errors. The logical subspace is spanned by a basis comprised of code basis states or codewords. |

Finite-geometry (FG) QLDPC code | CSS code constructed from linear binary codes whose parity-check or generator matrices are incidence matrices of points, hyperplanes, or other structures in finite geometries. These codes can be interpreted as quantum versions of FG-LDPC codes, but some of them [60,61] are not strictly QLDPC. |

Five-qubit perfect code | Five-qubit cyclic stabilizer code that is the smallest qubit stabilizer code to correct a single-qubit error. |

Five-rotor code | Extension of the five-qubit stabilizer code to the integer alphabet, i.e., the angular momentum states of a planar rotor. The code is \(U(1)\)-covariant and ideal codewords are not normalizable. |

Floquet color code | Floquet code on a trivalent 2D lattice whose parent topological phase is the \(\mathbb{Z}_2\times\mathbb{Z}_2\) 2D color-code phase and whose measurements cycle logical quantum information between the nine \(\mathbb{Z}_2\) surface-code condensed phases of the parent phase. The code's ISG is the stabilizer group of one of the nine surface codes. |

Fock-state bosonic code | Qudit-into-oscillator code whose protection against AD noise (i.e., photon loss) stems from the use of disjoint sets of Fock states for the construction of each code basis state. The simplest example is the dual-rail code, which has codewords consisting of single Fock states \(|10\rangle\) and \(|01\rangle\). This code can detect a single loss error since a loss operator in either mode maps one of the codewords to a different Fock state \(|00\rangle\). More involved codewords consist of several well-separated Fock states such that multiple loss events can be detected and corrected. |

Folded quantum RS (FQRS) code | CSS code on \(q^m\)-dimensional Galois-qudits that is constructed from folded RS (FRS) codes (i.e., an RS code whose coordinates have been grouped together) via the Galois-qudit CSS construction. This code is used to construct Singleton-bound approaching approximate quantum codes. |

Four-qubit single-deletion code | Four-qubit PI code that is the smallest qubit code to correct one deletion error. |

Four-rotor code | \([[4,2,2]]_{\mathbb Z}\) CSS rotor code that is an extension of the four-qubit code to the integer alphabet, i.e., the angular momentum states of a planar rotor. |

Fractal surface code | Kitaev surface code on a fractal geometry, which is obtained by removing qubits from the surface code on a cubic lattice. A related construction, the fractal product code, is a hypergraph product of two classical codes defined on a Sierpinski carpet graph [62]. The underlying classical codes form classical self-correcting memories [63–65]. |

Fracton Floquet code | Floquet code whose qubits are placed on vertices of a truncated cubic honeycomb. Its weight-two check operators are placed on edges of each truncated cube, while weight-three check operators are placed on each triangle. Its ISG can be that of the X-cube model code or the checkerboard model code. On a three-torus of size \(L_x \times L_y \times L_z\), the code consists of \(n= 48L_xL_yL_z\) physical qubits and encodes \(k= 2(L_x+L_y+L_z)-6\) logical qubits. |

Fracton stabilizer code | A 3D translationally invariant modular-qudit stabilizer code whose codewords make up the ground-state space of a Hamiltonian in a fracton phase. Unlike topological phases, whose excitations can move in any direction, fracton phases are characterized by excitations whose movement is restricted. |

Freedman-Meyer-Luo code | Hyperbolic surface code constructed using cellulation of a Riemannian Manifold \(M\) exhibiting systolic freedom [66]. Codes derived from such manifolds can achieve distances scaling better than \(\sqrt{n}\), something that is impossible using closed 2D surfaces or 2D surfaces with boundaries [67]. Improved codes are obtained by studying a weak family of Riemann metrics on closed 4-dimensional manifolds \(S^2\otimes S^2\) with the \(Z_2\)-homology. |

Frobenius code | A cyclic prime-qudit stabilizer code whose length \(n\) divides \(p^t + 1\) for some positive integer \(t\). |

Frustration-free Hamiltonian code | Hamiltonian-based code whose Hamiltonian is frustration free, i.e., whose ground states minimize the energy of each term. |

Fusion-based quantum computing (FBQC) code | Code whose codewords are resource states used in an FBQC scheme. Related to a cluster state via Hadamard transformations. |

GKP CV-cluster-state code | Cluster-state code can consists of a generalized analog cluster state that is initialized in GKP (resource) states for some of its physical modes. Alternatively, it can be thought of as an oscillator-into-oscillator GKP code whose encoding consists of initializing \(k\) modes in momentum states (or, in the normalizable case, squeezed vacua), \(n-k\) modes in (normalizable) GKP states, and applying a Gaussian circuit consisting of two-body \(e^{i V_{jk} \hat{x}_j \hat{x}_k }\) for some angles \(V_{jk}\). Provides a way to perform fault-tolerant MBQC, with the required number \(n-k\) of GKP-encoded physical modes determined by the particular protocol [68–71]. |

GKP-surface code | A concatenated code whose outer code is a GKP code and whose inner code is a toric surface code [72], rotated surface code [70,73–76], or XZZX surface code [77]. |

GNU PI code | PI code whose codewords can be expressed as superpositions of Dicke states with coefficients are square-roots of the binomial distribution. |

Galois-qudit BCH code | True Galois-qudit stabilizer code constructed from BCH codes via either the Hermitian construction or the Galois-qudit CSS construction. Parameters can be improved by applying Steane enlargement [78]. |

Galois-qudit CSS code | An \([[n,k,d]]_q \) Galois-qudit true stabilizer code admitting a set of stabilizer generators that are either \(Z\)-type or \(X\)-type Galois-qudit Pauli strings. Codes can be defined from chain complexes over \(GF(q)\) via an extension of qubit CSS-to-homology correspondence to Galois qudits. |

Galois-qudit CWS code | A CWS code for Galois qudits, defined using a Galois-qudit cluster state and a set of Galois-qudit \(Z\)-type Pauli strings defined by a \(q\)-ary classical code. |

Galois-qudit GRS code | True \(q\)-Galois-qudit stabilizer code constructed from GRS codes via either the Hermitian construction [79–81] or the Galois-qudit CSS construction [82,83]. |

Galois-qudit HGP code | A member of a family of Galois-qudit CSS codes whose stabilizer generator matrix is obtained from a hypergraph product of two classical linear \(q\)-ary codes. |

Galois-qudit RS code | An \([[n,k,n-k+1]]_q\) (with \(q>n\)) Galois-qudit CSS code constructed using two RS codes over \(GF(q)\). |

Galois-qudit USt code | A Galois-qubit code whose codespace consists of a direct sum of a Galois-qubit stabilizer codespace and one or more of that stabilizer code's error spaces. |

Galois-qudit code | Encodes \(K\)-dimensional Hilbert space into a \(q^n\)-dimensional (\(n\)-qudit) Hilbert space, with canonical qudit states \(|k\rangle\) labeled by elements \(k\) of the Galois field \(GF(q)\) and with \(q\) being a power of a prime \(p\). |

Galois-qudit color code | Extension of the color code to 2D lattices of Galois qudits. |

Galois-qudit expander code | Galois-qudit CSS code constructed from a hypergraph product of expander codes. |

Galois-qudit quantum RM code | True \(q\)-Galois-qudit stabilizer code constructed from generalized Reed-Muller (GRM) codes via the Hermitian construction, the Galois-qudit CSS construction, or directly from their parity-check matrices [84; Sec. 4.2]. |

Galois-qudit stabilizer code | An \(((n,K,d))_q\) Galois-qudit code whose logical subspace is the joint eigenspace of commuting Galois-qudit Pauli operators forming the code's stabilizer group \(\mathsf{S}\). Traditionally, the logical subspace is the joint \(+1\) eigenspace, and the stabilizer group does not contain \(e^{i \phi} I\) for any \(\phi \neq 0\). The distance \(d\) is the minimum weight of a Galois-qudit Pauli string that implements a nontrivial logical operation in the code. |

Galois-qudit surface code | Extension of the surface code to 2D lattices of Galois qudits. |

Generalized 2D color code | Member of a family of non-Abelian 2D topological codes, defined by a finite group \( G \), that serves as a generalization of the color code (for which \(G=\mathbb{Z}_2\times\mathbb{Z}_2\)). |

Generalized Shor code | Qubit CSS code constructed by concatenating two classical codes in a way the generalizes the Shor and quantum parity codes. |

Generalized bicycle (GB) code | A quasi-cyclic Galois-qudit CSS code constructed using a generalized version of the bicycle ansatz [85] from a pair of equivalent index-two quasi-cyclic linear codes. Equivalently, the codes can constructed via the lifted-product construction for \(G\) being a cyclic group [6; Sec. III.E]. |

Generalized homological-product CSS code | CSS code whose properties are determined from an underlying chain complex, which often consists of some type of product of other chain complexes. |

Generalized homological-product code | Stabilizer code whose properties are determined from an underlying chain complex, which often consists of some type of product of other chain complexes. The Qubit CSS-to-homology correspondence yields an interpretation of codes in terms of manifolds, thus allowing for the use of various products from topology in constructing codes. |

Generalized homological-product qubit CSS code | Qubit CSS code whose properties are determined from an underlying chain complex, which often consists of some type of product of other chain complexes. |

Generalized quantum Tanner code | An extension of quantum Tanner codes to codes constructed from two commuting regular graphs with the same vertex set. This allows for code construction using finite sets and Schreier graphs, yielding a broader family of square complexes. |

Generalized quantum divisible code | A level-\(\nu\) generalized quantum divisible code is a CSS code whose \(X\)-type stabilizers, in the symplectic representation, have zero norm and form a \((\nu,t)\)-null matrix (defined below) with respect to some odd-integer vector \(t\) [86; Def. V.1]. Such codes admit gates at the \(\nu\)th level of the Clifford hierarchy. Such codes can also be level-lifted [86; Theorem V.6], \(\nu\to\nu+1\), which recursively yields towers of generalized divisible codes from a particular ground code. |

Golden code | Variant of the Guth-Lubotzky hyperbolic surface code that uses regular tessellations for 4-dimensional hyperbolic space. |

Good QLDPC code | Also called asymptotically good QLDPC codes. A family of QLDPC codes \([[n_i,k_i,d_i]]\) whose asymptotic rate \(\lim_{i\to\infty} k_i/n_i\) and asymptotic distance \(\lim_{i\to\infty} d_i/n_i\) are both positive. |

Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill (GKP) code | Quantum lattice code for a non-degenerate lattice, thereby admitting a finite-dimensional logical subspace. Codes on \(n\) modes can be constructed from lattices with \(2n\)-dimensional full-rank Gram matrices \(A\). |

Graph quantum code | A stabilizer code on tensor products of \(G\)-valued qudits for Abelian \(G\) whose encoding isometry is defined using a graph [87; Eqs. (4-5)]. An analytical form of the codewords exists in terms of the adjacency matrix of the graph and bicharacters of the Abelian group [87]; see [88; Eq. (1)]. A graph quantum code for \(G=\mathbb{Z}_2\) contains a cluster state as one of its codewords and reduces to a cluster state when its logical dimension is one [89]. |

Group GKP code | Group-based quantum code whose construction is based on nested subgroups \(H\subset K \subset G\). Logical subspace is spanned by basis states that are equal superpositions of elements of cosets of \(H\) in \(K\), and can be finite- or infinite-dimensional. |

Group-based QPC | An \([[m r,1,\min(m,r)]]_G\) generalization of the QPC. |

Group-based cluster-state code | A code based on a group-based cluster state for a finite group \(G\) [90]. Such cluster states can be defined using a graph and conditional group multiplication operations. A group-based cluster state for \(G=GF(q)\) for prime-power \(q\) is called a Galois-qudit cluster state, while the state for \(G=\mathbb{Z}_q\) for positive \(q\) is called a modular-qudit cluster state. |

Group-based quantum code | Encodes a logical Hilbert space, finite- or infinite-dimensional, into a physical Hilbert space of \(L^2\)-normalizable functions on a second-countable unimodular group \(G\), i.e., a \(G\)-valued qudit or \(G\)-qudit. In other words, a group-valued qudit is a vector space whose canonical basis states \(|g\rangle\) are labeled by elements \(g\) of a group \(G\). For \(K\)-dimensional logical subspace and for block codes defined on groups \(G^{n}\), can be denoted as \(((n,K))_G\). When the logical subspace is the Hilbert space of \(L^2\)-normalizable functions on \(G^{ k}\), can be denoted as \([[n,k]]_G\). Ideal codewords may not be normalizable, depending on whether \(G\) is continuous and/or noncompact, so approximate versions have to be constructed in practice. |

Group-based quantum repetition code | An \([[n,1]]_G\) generalization of the quantum repetition code. |

Group-representation code | Code whose projection is onto an irreducible representation of a subgroup \(G\) of a group of canonical or distinguished unitary operations, e.g., transversal gates in the case of block quantum codes, Gaussian operations in the case of bosonic codes, or \(SU(2)\) operations in the case of single-spin codes. |

Groupoid toric code | Extension of the Kitaev surface code from Abelian groups to groupoids, i.e., multi-fusion categories in which every morphism is an isomorphism [91]. Some models admit fracton-like features such as extensive ground-state degeneracy and excitations with restricted mobility. The robustness of these features has not yet been established. |

Guth-Lubotzky code | Hyperbolic surface code based on cellulations of certain four-dimensional manifolds. The manifolds are shown to have good homology and systolic properties for the purposes of code construction, with corresponding codes exhibiting linear rate. |

Haah cubic code (CC) | A 3D lattice stabilizer code on a length-\(L\) cubic lattice with one or two qubits per site. Admits two types of stabilizer generators with support on each cube of the lattice. In the non-CSS case, these two are related by spatial inversion. For CSS codes, we require that the product of all corner operators is the identity. We lastly require that there are no non-trival string operators, meaning that single-site operators are a phase, and any period one logical operator \(l \in \mathsf{S}^{\perp}\) is just a phase. |

Haar-random qubit code | Haar-random codewords are generated in a process involving averaging over unitary operations distributed accoding to the Haar measure. Haar-random codes are used to prove statements about the capacity of a quantum channel to transmit quantum information [92], but encoding and decoding in such \(n\)-qubit codes quickly becomes impractical as \(n\to\infty\). |

Hamiltonian-based code | Code whose codespace corresponds to a set of energy eigenstates of a quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian i.e., a Hermitian operator whose expectation value measures the energy of its underlying physical system. The codespace is typically a set of low-energy eigenstates or ground states, but can include subspaces of arbitrarily high energy. Hamiltonians whose eigenstates are the canonical basis elements are called classical; otherwise, a Hamiltonian is called quantum. |

Hastings-Haah Floquet code | DA code whose sequence of check-operator measurements is periodic. The first instance of a dynamical code. |

Hayden-Nezami-Salton-Sanders bosonic code | An \([[n,1]]_{\mathbb{R}}\) analog CSS code defined using homological structres associated with an \(n-1\) simplex. Relevant to the study of spacetime replication of quantum information [93]. |

Hemicubic code | Homological code constructed out of cubes in high dimensions. The hemicubic code family has asymptotically diminishing soundness that scales as order \(\Omega(1/\log n)\), locality of stabilizer generators scaling as order \(O(\log n)\), and distance of order \(\Theta(\sqrt{n})\). |

Heptagon holographic code | Holographic tensor-network code constructed out of a network of encoding isometries of the Steane code. Depending on how the isometry tensors are contracted, there is a zero-rate and a finite-rate code family. |

Hermitian Galois-qudit code | An \([[n,k,d]]_q\) true Galois-qudit stabilizer code constructed from a Hermitian self-orthogonal linear code over \(GF(q^2)\) using the one-to-one correspondence between the Galois-qudit Pauli matrices and elements of the Galois field \(GF(q^2)\). |

Hermitian qubit code | An \([[n,k,d]]\) stabilizer code constructed from a Hermitian self-orthogonal linear quaternary code using the \(GF(4)\) representation. |

Hessian QSC | Quantum spherical code encoding a logical qubit, with each codeword an equal superposition of vertices of a Hessian complex polyhedron. For the unit sphere, the codewords are \begin{align} |\overline{0}\rangle &= \frac{1}{\sqrt{27}}\left( \sum_{\mu,\nu=0}^{2} |0,\omega^{\mu},-\omega^{\nu}\rangle + |-\omega^{\nu},0,\omega^{\mu}\rangle + |\omega^{\mu},-\omega^{\nu},0\rangle \right) \tag*{(2)}\\ |\overline{1}\rangle &= \frac{1}{\sqrt{27}}\left( \sum_{\mu,\nu=0}^{2} |0,-\omega^{\mu},\omega^{\nu}\rangle + |\omega^{\nu},0,-\omega^{\mu}\rangle + |-\omega^{\mu},\omega^{\nu},0\rangle \right)~, \tag*{(3)}\end{align} where \(\omega = e^{\frac{2\pi i}{3}}\). |

Hexagonal GKP code | Single-mode GKP qudit-into-oscillator code based on the hexagonal lattice. Offers the best error correction against displacement noise in a single mode due to the optimal packing of the underlying lattice. |

Hierarchical code | Member of a family of \([[n,k,d]]\) qubit stabilizer codes resulting from a concatenation of a constant-rate QLDPC code with a rotated surface code. Concatenation allows for syndrome extraction to be performed on a 2D geometry while maintining a threshold at the expense of a logarithmically vanishing rate. The growing syndrome extraction circuit depth allows known bounds in the literature to be weakened [94,95]. |

High-dimensional expander (HDX) code | CSS code constructed from a Ramanujan quantum code and an asymptotically good classical LDPC code using distance balancing. Ramanujan quantum codes are defined using Ramanujan complexes which are simplicial complexes that generalise Ramanujan graphs [96,97]. Combining the quantum code obtained from a Ramanujan complex and a good classical LDPC code, which can be thought of as coming from a 1-dimensional chain complex, yields a new quantum code that is defined on a 2-dimensional chain complex. This 2-dimensional chain complex is obtained by the co-complex of the product of the 2 co-complexes. The length, dimension and distance of the new quantum code depend on the input codes. |

Holographic code | Block quantum code whose features serve to model aspects of the AdS/CFT holographic duality and, more generally, quantum gravity. |

Holographic hybrid code | Holographic tensor-network code constructed out of alternating isometries of the five-qubit and \([[4,1,1,2]]\) Bacon-Shor codes. |

Holographic tensor-network code | Quantum Lego code whose encoding isometry forms a holographic tensor network, i.e., a tensor network associated with a tiling of hyperbolic space. Physical qubits are associated with uncontracted tensor legs at the boundary of the tesselation, while logical qubits are associated with uncontracted legs in the bulk. The number of layers emanating form the central point of the tiling is the radius of the code. |

Homological code | CSS-type extenstion of the Kitaev surface code to arbitrary manifolds. The version on a Euclidean manifold of some fixed dimension is called the \(D\)-dimensional "surface" or \(D\)-dimensional toric code. |

Homological number-phase code | A homological \(n\)-rotor code mapped into the Fock-state space of \(n\) oscillators by identifying non-negative rotor angular-momentum states with oscillator Fock states. The resulting oscillator code can encode logical rotors or qudits due to the presence of torsion in the chain complex defining the original rotor code. |

Homological product code | CSS code formulated using the tensor product of two chain complexes (see Qubit CSS-to-homology correspondence). |

Homological rotor code | A homological quantum rotor code is an extension of analog stabilizer codes to rotors. The code is stabilized by a continuous group of rotor \(X\)-type and \(Z\)-type generalized Pauli operators. Codes are formulated using an extension of the qubit CSS-to-homology correspondence to rotors. The homology group of the logical operators has a torsion component because the chain complexes are defined over the ring of integers, which yields codes with finite logical dimension, i.e., encoding logical qudits instead of only logical rotors. Such finite-dimensional encodings are not possible with analog stabilizer codes. |

Honeycomb (6.6.6) color code | Triangular color code defined on a patch of the 6.6.6 (honeycomb) tiling. |

Honeycomb Floquet code | Floquet code based on the Kitaev honeycomb model [98] whose logical qubits are generated through a particular sequence of measurements. A CSS version of the code has been proposed which loosens the restriction of which sequences to use [99]. The code has also been generalized to arbitrary non-chiral, Abelian topological order [100]. |

Hopf-algebra cluster-state code | Code based on a cluster state defined on qudits valued in a Hopf algebra. |

Hopf-algebra quantum-double code | Code whose codewords realize 2D gapped topological order defined on qudits valued in a Hopf algebra \(H\). The code Hamiltonian is an generalization [101,102] of the quantum double model from group algebras to Hopf algebras, as anticipated by Kitaev [43]. Boundaries of these models have been examined [103,104]. |

Hsieh-Halasz (HH) code | Member of one of two families of fracton codes, named HH-I and HH-II, defined on a cubic lattice with two qubits per site. HH-I (HH-II) is a CSS (non-CSS) stabilizer code family, with the former identified as a foliated type-I fracton code [3]. |

Hsieh-Halasz-Balents (HHB) code | Member of one of two families of fracton codes, named HHB model A and B, defined on a cubic lattice with two qubits per site. Both are expected to be foliated type-I fracton codes [3; Eqs. (D42-D43)]. |

Hybrid cat code | A hybrid qubit-oscillator code admitting codewords that are tensor products of a single-qubit (e.g., photon polarization) state with either a cat state or a coherent state. |

Hybrid qudit-oscillator code | Encodes a \(K\)-dimensional logical Hilbert space into \(n_1\) modular qudits of dimension \(q\) and \(n_2 \neq 0\) oscillators, i.e., the Hilbert space of \(L^2\)-normalizable functions on \(\mathbb{Z}_q^{n_1} \times \mathbb{R}^{n_2}\). In photonic systems, photonic states of multiple degrees of freedom of a photon (e.g., frequency, amplitude, and polarization) are called hyper-entangled states [105]. |

Hyperbolic Floquet code | Floquet code whose check-operators correspond to edges of a hyperbolic lattice of degree 3. |

Hyperbolic color code | An extension of the color code construction to hyperbolic manifolds. As opposed to there being only three types of uniform three-valent and three-colorable lattice tilings in the 2D Euclidean plane, there is an infinite number of admissible hyperbolic tilings in the 2D hyperbolic plane [106]. Certain double covers of hyperbolic tilings also yield admissible tilings [107]. Other admissible hyperbolic tilings can be obtained via a fattening procedure [108]; see also a construction based on the more general quantum pin codes [109]. |

Hyperbolic surface code | An extension of the Kitaev surface code construction to hyperbolic manifolds. Given a cellulation of a manifold, qubits are put on \(i\)-dimensional faces, \(X\)-type stabilizers are associated with \((i-1)\)-faces, while \(Z\)-type stabilizers are associated with \(i+1\)-faces. |

Hypergraph product (HGP) code | A member of a family of CSS codes whose stabilizer generator matrix is obtained from a hypergraph product of two classical linear binary codes. Codes from hypergraph products in higher dimension are called higher-dimensional HGP codes [110]. |

Hyperinvariant tensor-network (HTN) code | Holographic tensor-network error-detecting code constructed out of a hyperinvariant tensor network [111], i.e., a MERA-like network admitting a hyperbolic geometry. The network is defined using two layers A and B, with constituent tensors satisfying isometry conditions (a.k.a. multitensor constraints). |

Hypersphere product code | Homological code based on products of hyperspheres. The hypersphere product code family has asymptotically diminishing soundness that scales as order \(O(1/\log (n)^2)\), locality of stabilizer generators scaling as order \(O(\log n/ \log\log n)\), and distance of order \(\Theta(\sqrt{n})\). |

Jordan-Wigner transformation code | A mapping between qubit Pauli strings and Majorana operators that can be thought of as a trivial \([[n,n,1]]\) code. The mapping is best described as converting a chain of \(n\) qubits into a chain of \(2n\) Majorana modes (i.e., \(n\) fermionic modes). It maps Majorana operators into Pauli strings of weight \(O(n)\). |

Jump code | A CE code designed to detect and correct AD errors. An \(((n,K))\) jump code is denoted as \(((n,K,t))_w\) (which conflicts with modular-qudit notation), where \(t\) is the maximum number of qubits that can be corrected after each one has undergone a jump error \(|0\rangle\langle 1|\), and where each codeword is a uniform superposition of qubit basis states with Hamming weight \(w\). |

Kim-Preskill-Tang (KPT) code | A quantum error-correcting code that protects the encoded interior of a black hole from computationally bounded exterior observers. Under the assumption that the Hawking radiation emitted by an old black hole is pseudorandom, there exists a subspace of the radiation system that encodes the black hole interior, entangled with the late outgoing Hawking quanta. The logical operators of this code commute with efficient operations acting on the radiation, protecting the interior up to corrections exponentially small in the black hole's entropy. |

Kitaev chain code | An \([[n,1,1]]_{f}\) Majorana stabilizer code forming the ground-state of the Kitaev Majorana chain (a.k.a. Kitaev Majorana wire) in its fermionic topological phase, which is unitarily equivalent to the 1D quantum Ising model in the symmetry-breaking phase via the Jordan-Wigner transformation. The code is usually defined using the algebra of two anti-commuting Majorana operators called Majorana zero modes (MZMs) or Majorana edge modes (MEMs). |

Kitaev current-mirror qubit code | Member of the family of \([[2n,(0,2),(2,n)]]_{\mathbb{Z}}\) homological rotor codes storing a logical qubit on a thin Möbius strip. The ideal code can be obtained from a Josephson-junction [112] system [113]. |

Kitaev honeycomb code | Code whose logical subspace is labeled by different fusion outcomes of Ising anyons present in the Ising-anyon topological phase of the Kitaev honeycomb model [98]. Each logical qubit is constructed out of four Majorana operators, which admit braiding-based gates due to their non-Abelian statistics and which can be used for topological quantum computation. Ising anyons also exist in other phases, such as the fractional quantum Hall phase [114]. |

Kitaev surface code | A family of Abelian topological CSS stabilizer codes whose generators are few-body \(X\)-type and \(Z\)-type Pauli strings associated to the stars and plaquettes, respectively, of a cellulation of a two-dimensional surface (with a qubit located at each edge of the cellulation). Codewords correspond to ground states of the surface code Hamiltonian, and error operators create or annihilate pairs of anyonic charges or vortices. |

Knill code | A group representation code whose projection is onto an irrep of a normal subgroup of the group formed by a nice error basis. Knill codes yield stabilizer-like codes based on error bases that are non-Pauli but that nevertheless maintain many of the useful features of Pauli-type bases. |

La-cross code | Code constructed using the hypergraph product of two copies of a cyclic LDPC code. The construction uses cyclic LDPC codes with generating polynomials \(1+x+x^k\) for some \(k\). Using a length-\(n\) seed code yields an \([[2n^2,2k^2]]\) family for periodic boundary conditions and an \([[(n-k)^2+n^2,k^2]]\) family for open boundary conditions. |

Ladder Floquet code | Floquet code defined on a ladder qubit geometry, with one qubit per vertex. The check operators consist of \(ZZ\) checks on each rung and alternating \(XX\) and \(YY\) check on the legs. |

Landau-level spin code | Approximate quantum code that encodes a qudit in the finite-dimensional Hilbert space of a single spin, i.e., a spherical Landau level. Codewords are approximately orthogonal Landau-level spin coherent states whose orientations are spaced maximally far apart along a great circle (equator) of the sphere. The larger the spin, the better the performance. |

Lattice stabilizer code | A geometrically local modular-qudit or Galois-qudit stabilizer code with qudits organized on a lattice modeled by the additive group \(\mathbb{Z}^D\) for spatial dimension \(D\). On an infinite lattice, its stabilizer group is generated by few-site Pauli operators and their translations, in which case the code is called translationally invariant stabilizer code. Boundary conditions have to be imposed on the lattice in order to obtain finite-dimensional versions. Lattice defects and boundaries between different codes can also be introduced. |

Layer code | Member of a family of 3D lattice CSS codes with stabilizer generator weights \(\leq 6\) that are obtained by coupling layers of 2D surface code according to the Tanner graph of a QLDPC code. Geometric locality is maintained because, instead of being concatenated, each pair of parallel surface-code squares are fused (or quasi-concatenated) with perpendicular surface-code squares via lattice surgery. |

Lift-connected surface (LCS) code | Member of one of several families of lifted-product codes that consist of sparsely interconnected stacks of surface codes. |

Lifted-product (LP) code | Galois-qudit code that utilizes the notion of a lifted product in its construction. Lifted products of certain classical Tanner codes are the first (asymptotically) good QLDPC codes. |

Local Haar-random circuit qubit code | An \(n\)-qubit code whose codewords are a pair of approximately locally indistinguishable states produced by starting with any two orthogonal \(n\)-qubit states and acting with a random unitary circuit of depth polynomial in \(n\). Two states are locally indistinguishable if they cannot be distinguished by local measurements. A single layer of the encoding circuit is composed of about \(n/2\) two-qubit nearest-neighbor gates run in parallel, with each gate drawn randomly from the Haar distribution on two-qubit unitaries. |

Long-range enhanced surface code (LRESC) | Code constructed using the hypergraph product of two copies of a concatenated LDPC-repetition seed code. This family interpolates between surface codes and hypergraph codes since the hypergraph product of two repetition codes yields the planar surface code. The construction uses small \([3,2,2]\) and \([6,2,4]\) LDPC codes concatenated with \([4,1,4]\) and \([2,1,2]\) repetition codes, respectively. An example using a \([5,2,3]\) code is also presented. |

Loop toric code | A generalization of the Kitaev surface code defined on a 4D lattice. The code is called a \((2,2)\) toric code because it admits 2D membrane \(Z\)-type and \(X\)-type logical operators. Both types of operators create 1D (i.e., loop) excitations at their edges. The code serves as a self-correcting quantum memory [115,116]. |

Lossless expander balanced-product code | QLDPC code constructed by taking the balanced product of lossless expander graphs. Using one part of a quantum-code chain complex constructed with one-sided loss expanders [117] yields a \(c^3\)-LTC [118]. Using two-sided expanders, which are only conjectured to exist, yields an asymptotically good QLDPC code family [119]. |

Magnon code | An \(n\)-spin approximate code whose codespace of \(k=\Omega(\log n)\) qubits is efficiently described in terms of particular matrix product states or Bethe ansatz tensor networks. Magnon codewords are low-energy excited states of the frustration-free Heisenberg-XXX model Hamiltonian [120]. |

Majorana box qubit | An \([[n,1,2]]_{f}\) Majorana stabilizer code forming the even-fermion-parity ground-state subspace of two parallel Kitaev Majorana chains in their fermionic topological phase. The \([[2,1,2]]_{f}\) version is called the tetron Majorana code. An \([[3,2,2]]_{f}\) extension using three Kitaev chains and housing two logical qubits of the same parity is called the hexon Majorana code. Similarly, octon, decon, and dodecon are codes defined by the positive-parity subspace of \(4\), \(5\), and \(6\) fermionic modes, respectively [121]. |

Majorana checkerboard code | A Majorana analogue of the X-cube model defined on a cubic lattice. The code admits weight-eight Majorana stabilizer generators on the eight vertices of each cube of a checkerboard sublattice. |

Majorana color code | Majorana analogue of the color code defined on a 2D tricolorable lattice and constructed out of Majorana box qubit codes placed on patches of the lattice. |

Majorana loop stabilizer code (MLSC) | An single error-correcting fermion-into-qubit encoding defined on a 2D qubit lattice whose stabilizers are associated with loops in the lattice. |

Majorana stabilizer code | A stabilizer code whose stabilizers are products of an even number of Majorana fermion operators, analogous to Pauli strings for a traditional stabilizer code and referred to as Majorana stabilizers. The codespace is the mutual \(+1\) eigenspace of all Majorana stabilizers. In such systems, Majorana fermions may either be considered individually or paired into creation and annihilation operators for fermionic modes. Codes can be denoted as \([[n,k,d]]_{f}\) [122], where \(n\) is the number of fermionic modes (equivalently, \(2n\) Majorana modes). |

Majorana surface code | Majorana analogue of the surface code defined on a 2D lattice and constructed out of Majorana box qubit codes placed on patches of the lattice. |

Matching code | Member of a class of qubit stabilizer codes based on the Abelian phase of the Kitaev honeycomb model. |

Matrix-model code | Multimode-mode Fock-state bosonic approximate code derived from a matrix model, i.e., a non-Abelian bosonic gauge theory with a large gauge group. The model's degrees of freedom are matrix-valued bosons \(a\), each consisting of \(N^2\) harmonic oscillator modes and subject to an \(SU(N)\) gauge symmetry. |

Modular-qudit CSS code | An \(((n,K,d))_q\) modular-qudit stabilizer code admitting a set of stabilizer generators that are either \(Z\)-type or \(X\)-type Pauli strings. Codes can be defined from two classical codes and/or chain complexes over the ring \(\mathbb{Z}_q\) via an extension of qubit CSS-to-homology correspondence to modular qudits. The homology group of the logical operators has a torsion component because the chain complexes are defined over a ring, which yields codes whose logical dimension is not a power of \(q\). |

Modular-qudit CWS code | A CWS code for modular qudits, defined using a modular-qudit cluster state and a set of modular-qudit \(Z\)-type Pauli strings defined by a \(q\)-ary classical code over \(\mathbb{Z}_q\). |

Modular-qudit DA code | Dynamically-generated stabilizer-based modular-qudit code whose (not necessarily periodic) sequence of few-body measurements implements state initialization, logical gates and error detection. |

Modular-qudit GKP code | Modular-qudit analogue of the GKP code. Encodes a qudit into a larger qudit and protects against Pauli shifts up to some maximum value. |

Modular-qudit USt code | A modular-qubit code whose codespace consists of a direct sum of a modular-qubit stabilizer codespace and one or more of that stabilizer code's error spaces. |

Modular-qudit cluster-state code | A code based on a modular-qudit cluster state. |

Modular-qudit code | Encodes \(K\)-dimensional Hilbert space into a \(q^n\)-dimensional (\(n\)-qudit) Hilbert space, with canonical qudit states \(|k\rangle\) labeled by elements \(k\) of the group \(\mathbb{Z}_q\) of integers modulo \(q\). Usually denoted as \(((n,K))_{\mathbb{Z}_q}\) or \(((n,K,d))_{\mathbb{Z}_q}\), whenever the code's distance \(d\) is defined, and with \(q=p\) when the dimension is prime. |

Modular-qudit color code | Extension of the color code to lattices of modular qudits. Codes are defined analogous to qubit color codes on suitable lattices of any spatial dimension, but a directionality is required in order to make the modular-qudit stabilizer commute. This can be done by puncturing a hyperspherical lattice [123] or constructing a star-bipartition; see [124; Sec. III]. Logical dimension is determined by the genus of the underlying surface (for closed surfaces), types of boundaries (for open surfaces), and/or any twist defects present. |

Modular-qudit honeycomb Floquet code | A modular-qudit extension of the honeycomb Floquet code. |

Modular-qudit stabilizer code | An \(((n,K,d))_q\) modular-qudit code whose logical subspace is the joint eigenspace of commuting qudit Pauli operators forming the code's stabilizer group \(\mathsf{S}\). Traditionally, the logical subspace is the joint \(+1\) eigenspace, and the stabilizer group does not contain \(e^{i \phi} I\) for any \(\phi \neq 0\). The distance \(d\) is the minimum weight of a qudit Pauli string that implements a nontrivial logical operation in the code. |

Modular-qudit surface code | Extension of the surface code to prime-dimensional [43,125] and more general modular qudits [126]. Stabilizer generators are few-body \(X\)-type and \(Z\)-type Pauli strings associated to the stars and plaquettes, respectively, of a tessellation of a two-dimensional surface. Since qudits have more than one \(X\) and \(Z\)-type operator, various sets of stabilizer generators can be defined. Ground-state degeneracy and the associated phase depends on the qudit dimension and the stabilizer generators. |

Molecular code | Encodes finite-dimensional Hilbert space into the Hilbert space of \(L^2\)-normalizable functions on the group \(SO_3\). Construction is based on nested subgroups \(H\subset K \subset SO_3\), where \(H,K\) are finite. The \(|K|/|H|\)-dimensional logical subspace is spanned by basis states that are equal superpositions of elements of cosets of \(H\) in \(K\). |

Monitored random-circuit code | Error-correcting code arising from a monitored random circuit. Such a circuit is described by a series of intermittant random local projective Pauli measurements with random unitary time-evolution operators. An important sub-family consists of Clifford monitored random circuits, where unitaries are sampled from the Clifford group [127]. When the rate of projective measurements is independently controlled by a probability parameter \(p\), there can exist two stable phases, one described by volume-law entanglement entropy and the other by area-law entanglement entropy. The phases and their transition can be understood from the perspective of quantum error correction, information scrambling, and channel capacities [128,129]. |

Monolithic quantum code | A code constructed in a single quantum system, i.e., a physical space that is not treated as a tensor product of \(n\) identical subsystems. Examples include codes in a single qudit, spin, oscillator, or molecule. |

Movassagh-Ouyang Hamiltonian code | This is a family of codes derived via an algorithm that takes as input any binary classical code and outputs a quantum code (note that this framework can be extended to \(q\)-ary codes). The algorithm is probabalistic but succeeds almost surely if the classical code is random. An explicit code construction does exist for linear distance codes encoding one logical qubit. For finite rate codes, there is no rigorous proof that the construction algorithm succeeds, and approximate constructions are described instead. |

Multi-fusion string-net code | Family of codes resulting from the string-net construction but whose input is a unitary multi-fusion category (as opposed to a unitary fusion category). |

NTRU-GKP code | Multi-mode GKP code whose underlying lattice is utilized in variations of the NTRU cryptosystem [130]. Randomized constructions yield constant-rate GKP code families whose largest decodable displacement length scales as \(O(\sqrt{n})\) with high probability. |

Neural network code | An approximate code obtained from a numerical optimization involving a reinforcement learning agent. |

Number-phase code | Bosonic rotation code consisting of superpositions of Pegg-Barnett phase states [131], \begin{align} |\phi\rangle \equiv \frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi}}\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \mathrm{e}^{\mathrm{i} n \phi} \ket{n}. \tag*{(4)}\end{align} Since phase states and thus the ideal codewords are not normalizable, approximate versions need to be constructed. The codes' key feature is that, in the ideal case, phase measurement has zero uncertainty, making it a good canditate for a syndrome measurement. |

Numerically optimized bosonic code | Bosonic Fock-state code obtained from a numerical minimization procedure, e.g., from enforcing error-correction criteria against some number of losses while minimizing average occupation number. Useful single-mode codes can be determined using basic numerical optimization [10,132], semidefinite-program recovery/encoding optimization [133,134], or reinforcement learning [135,136]. |

One-hot quantum code | Encoding of a \(q\)-dimensional qudit into the single-excitation subspace of \(q\) modes. The \(j\)th logical state is the multi-mode Fock state with one photon in mode \(j\) and zero photons in the other modes. This code is useful for encoding and performing operations on qudits in multiple qubits [137–141]. |

Oscillator-into-oscillator GKP code | Multimode GKP code with an infinite-dimensional logical space. Can be obtained by considering an \(n\)-mode GKP code with a finite-dimensional logical space, removing stabilizers such that the logical space becomes infinite dimensional, and applying a Gaussian circuit. |

Oscillator-into-oscillator code | Encodes \(k\) bosonic modes into \(n\) bosonic modes. |

Ouyang-Chao constant-excitation PI code | A constant-excitation PI Fock-state code whose construction is based on integer partitions. |

PI qubit code | Block quantum code defined on two-dimensional subsystems such that any permutation of the subsystems leaves any codeword invariant. |

Pair-cat code | Two- or higher-mode extension of cat codes whose codewords are right eigenstates of powers of products of the modes' lowering operators. Many gadgets for cat codes have two-mode pair-cat analogues, with the advantage being that such gates can be done in parallel with a dissipative error-correction process. |

Pastawski-Yoshida-Harlow-Preskill (HaPPY) code | Holographic code constructed out of a network of hexagonal perfect tensors that tesselates hyperbolic space. The code serves as a minimal model for several aspects of the AdS/CFT holographic duality [142] and potentially a dF/CFT duality [143]. It has been generalized to higher dimensions [144] and to include gauge-like degrees of freedom on the links of the tensor network [145,146]. All boundary global symmetries must be dual to bulk gauge symmetries, and vice versa [147]. |

Penrose tiling code | Encodes quantum information into superpositions of rotated and translated versions of different Penrose tilings of \(\mathbb{R}^n\). |

Perfect quantum code | A type of block quantum code whose parameters satisfy the quantum Hamming bound with equality. |

Perfect-tensor code | Block quantum code encoding one subsystem into \(n\) subsystems whose encoding isometry is a perfect tensor. This code stems from an AME\((n,q)\) AME state, or equivalently, a \(((n+1,1,\lfloor (n+1)/2 \rfloor + 1))_{\mathbb{Z}_q}\) code. |

Permutation-invariant (PI) code | Block quantum code such that any permutation of the subsystems leaves any codeword invariant. In other words, the automorphism group of the code contains the symmetric group \(S_n\). |

Planar-perfect-tensor code | Block quantum code whose encoding isometry is a block perfect tensor, i.e., a tensor which remains an isometry under partitions into two contiguous components in a fixed plane. This code stems from a planar maximally entangled state [148]. |

Post-selected PI code | PI qubit code whose recovery succeeds at protecting against AD errors with a success probability less than one. |

Prime-qudit RM code | Modular-qudit stabilizer code constructed from generalized Reed-Muller (GRM) codes or their duals via the modular-qudit CSS construction. An odd-prime-qudit CSS code family constructed from first-order punctured GRM codes transversally implements a diagonal gate at any level of the qudit Clifford hierarchy [149]. |

Prime-qudit RS code | Prime-qudit CSS code constructed using two RS codes. |

Prime-qudit triorthogonal code | An \(m \times n\) matrix over \(GF(p)=\mathbb{Z}_p\) is triorthogonal if its rows \(r_1, \ldots, r_m\) satisfy \(|r_i \cdot r_j| = 0\) and \(|r_i \cdot r_j \cdot r_k| = 0\) modulo \(p\), where addition and multiplication are done on \(GF(p)\). The triorthogonal prime-qudit CSS code associated with the matrix is constructed by mapping non-zero entries in self-orhogonal rows to \(X\) operators, and \(Z\) operators for each row in the orthogonal complement [150,151]. |

Projective-plane surface code | A family of Kitaev surface codes on the non-orientable 2-dimensional compact manifold \(\mathbb{R}P^2\) (in contrast to a genus-\(g\) surface). Whereas genus-\(g\) surface codes require \(2g\) logical qubits, qubit codes on \(\mathbb{R}P^2\) are made from a single logical qubit. |

Purity-testing stabilizer code | A qubit stabilizer code that is constructed from a normal rational curve and that is relevant to testing the purity of an entangled Bell state stabilized by two parties [152]. |

Quantum AG code | A Galois-qudit CSS code constructed using two linear AG codes. |

Quantum Golay code | A \([[23, 1, 7]]\) self-dual CSS code with eleven stabilizer generators of each type, and with each generator being weight eight. |

Quantum Goppa code | A Galois-qudit CSS code constructed using two Goppa codes. |

Quantum LDPC (QLDPC) code | Member of a family of \([[n,k,d]]\) modular-qudit or Galois-qudit stabilizer codes for which the number of sites participating in each stabilizer generator and the number of stabilizer generators that each site participates in are both bounded by a constant \(w\) as \(n\to\infty\); can be denoted by \([[n,k,d,w]]\). Sometimes, the two parameters are explicitly stated: each site of an an \((l,w)\)-regular QLDPC code is acted on by \(\leq l\) generators of weight \(\leq w\). QLDPC codes can correct many stochastic errors far beyond the distance, which may not scale as favorably. Together with more accurate, faster, and easier-to-parallelize measurements than those of general stabilizer codes, this property makes QLDPC codes interesting in practice. |

Quantum Reed-Muller code | A CSS code formed from a classical Reed-Muller (RM) code or its punctured/shortened versions. Such codes often admit transversal logical gates in the Clifford hierarchy. |

Quantum Tamo-Barg (QTB) code | A member of a family of Galois-qudit CSS codes whose underlying classical codes consist of Tamo-Barg codes together with specific low-weight codewords. Folded versions of QTB codes, or FQTB codes, defined on qudits whose dimension depends on \(n\) yield explicit examples of QLRCs of arbitrary locality \(r\) [153; Thm. 2]. |

Quantum Tanner code | Member of a family of QLDPC codes based on two compatible classical Tanner codes defined on a two-dimensional Cayley complex, a complex constructed from Cayley graphs of groups. For certain choices of codes and complex, the resulting codes have asymptotically good parameters. This construction has been generalized to Schreier graphs [154]. |

Quantum check-product code | CSS code constructed from an extension of check product (between two classical codes) to a product between a classical and a quantum code. |

Quantum convolutional code | One-dimensional translationally invariant qubit stabilizer code whose whose stabilizer group can be partitioned into constant-size subsets of constant support and of constant overlap between neighboring sets. Initially formulated as a quantum analogue of convolutional codes, which were designed to protect a continuous and never-ending stream of information. Precise formulations sometimes begin with a finite-dimensional lattice, with the intent to take the thermodynamic limit; logical dimension can be infinite as well. |

Quantum data-syndrome (QDS) code | Stabilizer code designed to correct both data qubit errors and syndrome measurement errors simultaneously due to extra redundancy in its stabilizer generators. |

Quantum divisible code | A level-\(\nu\) quantum divisible code is a CSS code whose \(X\)-type stabilizers form a \(\nu\)-even linear binary code in the symplectic representation and which admits a transversal gate at the \(\nu\)th level of the Clifford hierarchy. A CSS code is doubly even (triply even) if all \(X\)-type stabilizers have weight divisible by four (eight), i.e., if they form a doubly even (triply even) linear binary code. |

Quantum duadic code | True Galois-qudit stabilizer code constructed from \(q\)-ary duadic codes via the Hermitian construction or the Galois-qudit CSS construction. |

Quantum error-correcting code (QECC) | Encodes quantum information in a (logical) subspace of a (physical) Hilbert space such that it is possible to recover said information from errors that act as linear maps on the physical space. |

Quantum expander code | CSS code constructed from a hypergraph product of bipartite expander graphs [58] with bounded left and right vertex degrees. For every bipartite graph there is an associated matrix (the parity check matrix) with columns indexed by the left vertices, rows indexed by the right vertices, and 1 entries whenever a left and right vertex are connected. This matrix can serve as the parity check matrix of a classical code. Two bipartite expander graphs can be used to construct a quantum CSS code (the quantum expander code) by using the parity check matrix of one as \(X\) checks, and the parity check matrix of the other as \(Z\) checks. |

Quantum lattice code | Bosonic stabilizer code on \(n\) bosonic modes whose stabilizer group is an infinite countable group of oscillator displacement operators which implement lattice translations in phase space. |

Quantum locally recoverable code (QLRC) | A QLRC of locality \(r\) is a block quantum code whose code states can be recovered after a single erasure by performing a recovery map on at most \(r\) subsystems. |

Quantum locally testable code (QLTC) | A local commuting-projector Hamiltonian-based block quantum code which has a nonzero average-energy penalty for creating large errors. Informally, QLTC error states that are far away from the codespace have to be excited states by a number of the code's local projectors that scales linearly with \(n\). |

Quantum low-weight check (QLWC) code | Member of a family of \([[n,k,d]]\) modular-qudit or Galois-qudit stabilizer codes for which the number of sites participating in each stabilizer generator is bounded by a constant as \(n\to\infty\). |

Quantum maximum-distance-separable (MDS) code | A type of block quantum code whose parameters satisfy the quantum Singleton bound with equality. |

Quantum multi-dimensional parity-check (QMDPC) code | High-rate low-distance CSS code whose qubits lie on a \(D\)-dimensional rectangle, with \(X\)-type stabilizer generators defined on each \(D-1\)-dimensional rectangle. The \(Z\)-type stabilizer generators are defined via permutations in order to commute with the \(X\)-type generators. |

Quantum parity code (QPC) | A \([[m_1 m_2,1,\min(m_1,m_2)]]\) CSS code family obtained from concatenating an \(m_1\)-qubit phase-flip repetition code with an \(m_2\)-qubit bit-flip repetition code. |

Quantum pin code | Member of a family of CSS codes that encompasses both quantum Reed-Muller and color codes and that is defined using intersections of pinned sets. |

Quantum quadratic-residue (QR) code | Galois-qudit \([[n,1]]_q\) pure self-dual CSS code constructed from a dual-containing QR code via the Galois-qudit CSS construction. For \(q\) not divisible by \(n\), its distance satisfies \(d^2-d+1 \geq n\) when \(n \equiv 3\) modulo 4 [155; Thm. 40] and \(d \geq \sqrt{n}\) when \(n\equiv 1\) modulo 4 [155; Thm. 41]. |

Quantum rainbow code | A CSS code whose qubits are associated with vertices of a simplex graph with \(m+1\) colors. |

Quantum repetition code | Encodes \(1\) qubit into \(n\) qubits according to \(|0\rangle\to|\phi_0\rangle^{\otimes n}\) and \(|1\rangle\to|\phi_1\rangle^{\otimes n}\). The code is called a bit-flip code when \(|\phi_i\rangle = |i\rangle\), and a phase-flip code when \(|\phi_0\rangle = |+\rangle\) and \(|\phi_1\rangle = |-\rangle\). |

Quantum spatially coupled (SC-QLDPC) code | QLDPC code whose stabilizer generator matrix resembles the parity-check matrix of SC-LDPC codes. There exist CSS [156] and stabilizer constructions [157]. In either case, the stabilizer generator matrix is constructed by "spatially" coupling sub-matrix blocks in chain-like fashion (or, more generally, in grid-like fashion) to yield a band matrix. The sub-matrix blocks have to satisfy certain conditions amongst themselves so that the resulting band matrix is a stabilizer generator matrix. Matrices corresponding to translationally invariant chains are called time-variant, and otherwise are called time-invariant. |

Quantum spherical code (QSC) | Code whose codewords are superpositions of points on an \(n\)-dimensional real or complex sphere. Such codes can in principle be defined on any configuration space housing a sphere, but the focus of this entry is on QSCs constructed out of coherent-state constellations. |

Quantum synchronizable code | A qubit stabilizer code designed to protect against synchronization errors (a.k.a. misalignment), which are errors that misalign the code block in a larger block by one or more locations. |

Quantum tensor-product code | CSS code constructed from a tensor code. In some cases, only one of the classical codes forming the tensor code needs to be self-orthogonal. |

Quantum turbo code | A quantum version of the turbo code, obtained from an interleaved serial quantum concatenation [158; Def. 30] of quantum convolutional codes. |

Quantum twisted code | Hermitian code arising constructed from twisted BCH codes. |

Quantum-double code | Group-GKP stabilizer code whose codewords realize 2D modular gapped topological order defined by a finite group \(G\). The code's generators are few-body operators associated to the stars and plaquettes, respectively, of a tessellation of a two-dimensional surface (with a qudit of dimension \( |G| \) located at each edge of the tesselation). |

Quasi-cyclic QLDPC code | A Galois-qudit stabilizer code on \(n\) subsystems such that cyclic shifts of the subsystems by \(\ell\geq 1\) leave the codespace invariant. Such codes have circulant stabilizer generator matrices [159,160]. |

Quasi-cyclic quantum code | A block code on \(n\) subsystems such that cyclic shifts of the subsystems by \(\ell\geq 1\) leave the codespace invariant. |

Quasi-hyperbolic color code | An extension of the color code construction to quasi-hyperbolic manifolds, e.g., a product of a 2D hyperbolic surface and a circle. |

Qubit BCH code | Qubit stabilizer code constructed from a self-orthogonal binary BCH code via the CSS construction, from a Hermitian self-orthogonal quaternary BCH code via the Hermitian construction, or by taking a Euclidean self-orthogonal BCH code over \(GF(2^m)\), converting it to a binary code, and applying the CSS construction. |

Qubit CSS code | An \([[n,k,d]]\) stabilizer code admitting a set of stabilizer generators that are either \(Z\)-type or \(X\)-type Pauli strings. Codes can be defined from two classical codes and/or chain complexes over \(\mathbb{Z}_2\) per the qubit CSS-to-homology correspondence below. Strong CSS codes are codes for which there exists a set of \(X\) and \(Z\) stabilizer generators of equal weight. |

Qubit code | Encodes \(K\)-dimensional Hilbert space into a \(2^n\)-dimensional (i.e., \(n\)-qubit) Hilbert space. Usually denoted as \(((n,K))\) or \(((n,K,d))\), where \(d\) is the code's distance. |

Qubit stabilizer code | An \(((n,2^k,d))\) qubit stabilizer code is denoted as \([[n,k]]\) or \([[n,k,d]]\), where \(d\) is the code's distance. Logical subspace is the joint eigenspace of commuting Pauli operators forming the code's stabilizer group \(\mathsf{S}\). Traditionally, the logical subspace is the joint \(+1\) eigenspace of a set of \(2^{n-k}\) commuting Pauli operators which do not contain \(-I\). The distance is the minimum weight of a Pauli string that implements a nontrivial logical operation in the code. |

Qudit GNU PI code | Extension of the GNU PI codes to those encoding logical qudits into physical qubits. Codewords can be expressed as superpositions of Dicke states with coefficients are square-roots of polynomial coefficients, with the case of binomial coefficients reducing to the GNU PI codes. |

Qudit cubic code | Generalization of the Haah cubic code to modular qudits. |

Qudit-into-oscillator code | Encodes \(K\)-dimensional Hilbert space into \(n\) bosonic modes. |

Random quantum code | Quantum code whose construction is non-deterministic in some way, i.e., codes that utilize an elements of randomness somewhere in their construction. Members of this class range from fully non-deterministic codes (e.g., random-circuit codes), to codes whose multi-step construction is deterministic with the exception of a single step (e.g., expander lifter-product codes). |

Random stabilizer code | An \(n\)-qubit, modular-qudit, or Galois-qudit stabilizer code whose construction is non-deterministic. Since stabilizer encoders are Clifford circuits, such codes can be thought of as arising from random Clifford circuits. |

Random-circuit code | Code whose encoding is naturally constructed by randomly sampling from a large set of (not necessarily unitary) quantum circuits. |

Raussendorf-Bravyi-Harrington (RBH) cluster-state code | A three-dimensional cluster-state code defined on the bcc lattice (i.e., a cubic lattice with qubits on edges and faces). |

Renormalization group (RG) cat code | Code whose codespace is spanned by \(q\) field-theoretic coherent states which are flowing under the renormalization group (RG) flow of massive free fields. The code approximately protects against displacements that represent local (i.e., short-distance, ultraviolet, or UV) operators. Intuitively, this is because RG cat codewords represent non-local (i.e., long-distance) degrees of freedom, which should only be excitable by acting on a macroscopically large number of short-distance degrees of freedom. |

Rhombic dodecahedron surface code | A \([[14,3,3]]\) twist-defect surface code whose qubits lie on the vertices of a rhombic dodecahedron. Its non-CSS nature is due to twist defects [161] stemming from the geometry of the polytope. |

Rotated surface code | Variant of the surface code defined on a square lattice that has been rotated 45 degrees such that qubits are on vertices, and both \(X\)- and \(Z\)-type check operators occupy plaquettes in an alternating checkerboard pattern. |

Rotor GKP code | GKP code protecting against small angular position and momentum shifts of a planar rotor. |

Rotor code | Encodes a logical Hilbert space, finite- or infinite-dimensional, into a physical Hilbert space of \(L^2\)-normalizable functions on either the integers \(\mathbb Z\) or the circle group \(U(1)\). Ideal codewords may not be normalizable because the space is infinite-dimensional, so approximate versions have to be constructed in practice. |

Rotor stabilizer code | Rotor code whose codespace is defined as the common \(+1\) eigenspace of a group of mutually commuting rotor generalized Pauli operators. The stabilizer group can be either discrete or continuous, corresponding to modular or linear constraints on angular positions and momenta. Both cases can yield finite or infinite logical dimension. Exact codewords are non-normalizable, so approximate constructions have to be considered. |

SYK code | Approximate \(n\)-fermionic code whose codewords are low-energy states of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) Hamiltonian [162,163] or other low-rank SYK models [164,165]. |

Self-complementary quantum code | A qubit code which admits a basis of codewords of the form \(|c\rangle+|\overline{c}\rangle\), where \(c\) is a bitstring and \(\overline{c}\) is its negation a.k.a. complement. Their codewords generalize the two-qubit Bell states and three-qubit GHZ states and are often called (qubit) cat states or poor-man's GHZ states. Such codes were originally pointed out to perform well against AD noise [166]. |

Self-correcting quantum code | A block quantum code that forms the ground-state subspace of an \(n\)-body geometrically local Hamiltonian whose logical information is recoverable for arbitrary long times in the \(n\to\infty\) limit after interaction with a sufficiently cold thermal environment. Typically, one also requires a decoder whose decoding time scales polynomially with \(n\) and a finite energy density. The original criteria for a self-correcting quantum memory, informally known as the Caltech rules [62,167], also required finite-spin Hamiltonians. |

Sierpinsky fractal spin-liquid (SFSL) code | A fractal type-I fracton CSS code defined on a cubic lattice [3; Eq. (D22)]. The code admits an excitation-moving operator shaped like a Sierpinski triangle [3; Fig. 2]. |

Single-mode bosonic code | Encodes \(K\)-dimensional Hilbert space into a single bosonic mode. A trivial single-mode code encoding a qubit into the first two Fock states \(\{|0\rangle,|1\rangle\}\) is called the single-rail encoding [168,169]. |

Single-shot code | Block quantum qudit code whose error-syndrome weights increase linearly with the distance of the error state to the code space. |

Single-spin code | An encoding into a monolithic (i.e. non-tensor-product) Hilbert space that houses an irreducible representation of \(SU(2)\) or, more generally, another Lie group. In some cases, this space can be thought of as the permutation invariant subspace of a particular tensor-product space. |

Singleton-bound approaching AQECC | Approximate quantum code of rate \(R\) that can tolerate adversarial errors nearly saturating the quantum Singleton bound of \((1-R)/2\). The formulation of such codes relies on a notion of quantum list decoding [170,171]. Sampling a description of this code can be done with an efficient randomized algorithm with \(2^{-\Omega(n)}\) failure probability. |

Six-qubit-tensor holographic code | Holographic tensor-network code constructed out of a network of encoding isometries of the \([[6,1,3]]\) six-qubit stabilizer code. The structure of the isometry is similar to that of the heptagon holographic code since both isometries are rank-six tensors, but the isometry in this case is neither a perfect tensor nor a planar-perfect tensor. |

Skew-cyclic CSS code | A member of a family of Galois-qudit CSS codes constructed from skew-cyclic classical codes over rings [172; Thm. 5.8]. See related study [173] that uses cyclic codes over rings. |

Small-distance block quantum code | A block quantum code on \(n\) subsystems that either detects or corrects errors on at most two subsystems, i.e., have distance \(\leq 5\). |

Smolin-Smith-Wehner (SSW) code | A family of \(((n=4k+2l+3,M_{k,l},2))\) self-complementary CWS codes, where \(M_{k,l} \approx 2^{n-2}(1-\sqrt{2/(\pi(n-1))})\). For \(n \geq 11\), these codes have a logical subspace whose dimension is larger than that of the largest stabilizer code for the same \(n\) and \(d\). A subset of these codes can be augmented to yield codes with one higher logical dimension [174]. |

Spacetime circuit code | Qubit stabilizer code used to correct faults in Clifford circuits, i.e., circuits up made of Clifford gates and Pauli measurements. The code utilizes redundancy in the measurement outcomes of a circuit to correct circuit faults, which correspond to Pauli errors of the code. |

Spin GKP code | An analogue of the single-mode GKP code designed for atomic ensembles. Was designed by using the Holstein-Primakoff mapping [175] (see also [176]) to pull back the phase-space structure of a bosonic system to the compact phase space of a quantum spin. A different construction emerges depending on which particular expression for GKP codewords is pulled back. |

Spin cat code | An analogue of the two-component cat code designed for a large spin, which is often realized in the PI subspace of atomic ensembles. |

Spin code | Encodes \(K\)-dimensional Hilbert space into a tensor-product or direct sum of factors, with each factor spanned by states of a quantum mechanical spin or, more generally, an irreducible representation of a Lie group. |

Square-lattice GKP code | Single-mode GKP qudit-into-oscillator code based on the rectangular lattice. Its stabilizer generators are oscillator displacement operators \(\hat{S}_q(2\alpha)=e^{-2i\alpha \hat{p}}\) and \(\hat{S}_p(2\beta)=e^{2i\beta \hat{x}}\). To ensure \(\hat{S}_q(2\alpha)\) and \(\hat{S}_p(2\beta)\) generate a stabilizer group that is Abelian, there is a constraint that \(\alpha\beta=2q\pi\) where \(q\) is an integer denoting the logical dimension. |

Square-octagon (4.8.8) color code | Triangular color code defined on a patch of the 4.8.8 (square-octagon) tiling, which itself is obtained by applying a fattening procedure to the square lattice [108]. |

Squeezed cat code | Two-component cat code whose two coherent states have been squeezed in a direction perpendicular to the segment formed by the two coherent state values \(\pm\alpha\). |

Squeezed fock-state code | Approximate bosonic code that encodes a qubit into the same Fock state, but one which is squeezed in opposite directions. |

Stabilizer code | A code whose logical subspace is the joint eigenspace (usually with eigenvalue \(+1\)) of a set of commuting unitary Pauli-type operators forming the code's stabilizer group. They can be block codes defined of tensor-product spaces of qubits or qudits, or non-block codes defined on single sufficiently large Hilbert spaces such as bosonic modes or group spaces. |

Stellated color code | A non-CSS color code on a lattice patch with a single twist defect at the center of the patch. |

String-net code | Code whose codewords realize a 2D topological order rendered by a Turaev-Viro topological field theory. The corresponding anyon theory is defined by a (multiplicity-free) unitary fusion category \( \mathcal{C} \). The code is defined on a cell decomposition dual to a triangulation of a two-dimensional surface, with a qudit of dimension \( |\mathcal{C}| \) located at each edge of the decomposition. These models realize local topological order (LTO) [177]. |

Surface-17 code | A \([[9,1,3]]\) rotated surface code named for the sum of its 9 data qubits and 8 syndrome qubits. It uses the smallest number of qubits to perform fault-tolerant error correction on a surface code with parallel syndrome extraction. |

Surface-code-fragment (SCF) holographic code | Holographic tensor-network code constructed out of a network of encoding isometries of the \([[5,1,2]]\) rotated surface code. The structure of the isometry is similar to that of the HaPPY code since both isometries are rank-six tensors. In the case of the SCF holographic code, the isometry is only a planar-perfect tensor (as opposed to a perfect tensor). |

Symmetry-protected self-correcting quantum code | A code which admits a restricted notion of thermal stability against symmetric perturbations, i.e., perturbations that commute with a set of operators forming a group \(G\) called the symmetry group. |

Symmetry-protected topological (SPT) code | A code whose codewords form the ground-state or low-energy subspace of a code Hamiltonian realizing symmetry-protected topological (SPT) order. |

Tensor-network code | Block quantum code constructed using a tensor-network-based graphical framework from atomic tensors a.k.a. quantum Lego blocks [178], which can be encoding isometries for smaller quantum codes. The class of codes constructed using the framework depends on the choice of atomic Lego blocks. |

Tensor-product HDX code | Code constructed in a similar way as the HDX code, but utilizing tensor products of multiple Ramanujan complexes and then applying distance balancing. These improve the asymptotic code distance over the HDX codes from \(\sqrt{n}\log n\) to \(\sqrt{n}~\text{polylog}(n)\). The utility of such tensor products comes from the fact that one of the Ramanujan complexes is a collective cosystolic expander as opposed to just a cosystolic expander. |

Ternary-tree fermion-into-qubit code | A fermion-into-qubit encoding defined on ternary trees that maps Majorana operators into Pauli strings of weight \(\lceil \log_3 (2n+1) \rceil\). |

Tetrahedral color code | 3D color code defined on select tetrahedra of a 3D tiling. Qubits are placed on the vertices, edges, triangles, and in the center of each tetrahedron. The code has both string-like and sheet-like logical operators [179]. |

Three-fermion (3F) Walker-Wang model code | A 3D lattice stabilizer code whose low-energy excitations on boundaries realize the three-fermion anyon theory [180–182] and that can be used as a resource state for fault-tolerant MBQC [183]. |

Three-fermion (3F) subsystem code | 2D subsystem stabilizer code whose low-energy excitations realize the three-fermion anyon theory [180–182]. One version uses two qubits at each site [54], while other manifestations utilize a single qubit per site and only weight-two (two-body) interactions [181,184]. All are expected to be equivalent to each other via a local constant-depth Clifford circuit. |

Three-qutrit code | A \([[3,1,2]]_3\) prime-qudit CSS code that is the smallest qutrit stabilizer code to detect a single-qutrit error. with stabilizer generators \(ZZZ\) and \(XXX\). The code defines a quantum secret-sharing scheme and serves as a minimal model for the AdS/CFT holographic duality. It is also the smallest non-trivial instance of a quantum maximum distance separable code (QMDS), saturating the quantum Singleton bound. |

Three-rotor code | \([[3,1,2]]_{\mathbb Z}\) rotor code that is an extension of the \([[3,1,2]]_3\) qutrit CSS code to the integer alphabet, i.e., the angular momentum states of a planar rotor. |

Topological code | A code whose codewords form the ground-state or low-energy subspace of a (typically geometrically local) code Hamiltonian realizing a topological phase. A topological phase may be bosonic or fermionic, i.e., constructed out of underlying subsystems whose operators commute or anti-commute with each other, respectively. Unless otherwise noted, the phases discussed are bosonic. |

Toric code | Version of the Kitaev surface code on the two-dimensional torus, encoding two logical qubits. Being the first manifestation of the surface code, "toric code" is often an alternative name for the general construction. Twisted toric code [185; Fig. 8] refers to the construction on a torus with twisted (a.k.a. shifted) boundary conditions. |

Transverse-field Ising model (TFIM) code | A 1D translationally invariant stabilizer code whose encoding is a constant-depth circuit of nearest-neighbor gates on alternating even and odd bonds that consist of transverse-field Ising Hamiltonian interactions. The code allows for perfect state transfer of arbitrary distance using local operations and classical communications (LOCC). |

Tree cluster-state code | Code obtained from a cluster state on a tree graph that has been proposed in the context of quantum repeater and MBQC architectures. |

Triangular surface code | A surface code with weight-four stabilizer generators defined on a triangular lattice patch that are examples of twist-defect surface code with a single twist defect at the center of the patch. The codes use about \(25\%\) fewer physical per logical qubit for a given distance compared to the surface code. |

Triorthogonal code | Qubit CSS code whose \(X\)-type logicals and stabilizer generators form a triorthogonal matrix (defined below) in the symplectic representation. |

True Galois-qudit stabilizer code | A \([[n,k,d]]_q\) stabilizer code whose stabilizer's Galois symplectic representation forms a linear subspace. In other words, the set of \(q\)-ary vectors representing the stabilizer group is closed under both addition and multiplication by elements of \(GF(q)\). In contrast, Galois-qudit stabilizer codes admit sets of vectors that are closed under addition only. |

Truncated trihexagonal (4.6.12) color code | Triangular color code defined on a patch of the 4.6.12 (truncated trihexagonal or square-hexagon-dodecagon) tiling. |

Twist-defect color code | A non-CSS extension of the 2D color code whose non-CSS stabilizer generators are associated with twist defects of the associated lattice. |

Twist-defect surface code | A non-CSS extension of the 2D surface-code construction whose non-CSS stabilizer generators are associated with twist defects of the associated lattice. A related construction [186] doubles the number of qubits in the lattice via symplectic doubling. |

Twisted XZZX toric code | A cyclic code that can be thought of as the XZZX toric code with shifted (a.k.a twisted) boundary conditions. Admits a set of stabilizer generators that are cyclic shifts of a particular weight-four \(XZZX\) Pauli string. For example, a seven-qubit \([[7,1,3]]\) variant has stabilizers generated by cyclic shifts of \(XZIZXII\) [187]. Codes encode either one or two logical qubits, depending on qubit geometry, and perform well against biased noise [188]. |

Twisted \(1\)-group code | Block group-representation code realizing particular irreps of particular groups such that a distance of two is automatically guaranteed. Groups which admit irreps with this property are called twisted (unitary) \(1\)-groups and include the binary icosahedral group \(2I\), the \(\Sigma(360\phi)\) subgroup of \(SU(3)\), the family \(\{PSp(2b, 3), b \geq 1\}\), and the alternating groups \(A_{5,6}\). Groups whose irreps are images of the appropriate irreps of twisted \(1\)-groups also yield such properties, e.g., the binary tetrahedral group \(2T\) or qutrit Pauli group \(\Sigma(72\phi)\). |

Twisted quantum double (TQD) code | Code whose codewords realize a 2D topological order rendered by a Chern-Simons topological field theory. The corresponding anyon theory is defined by a finite group \(G\) and a Type-III group cocycle \(\omega\), but can also be described in a category theoretic way [189]. |

Two-block CSS code | Galois-qudit CSS code whose stabilizer generator matrices \(H_X=(A,B)\) and \(H_Z=(B^T,-A^T)\), are constructed from a pair of square commuting matrices \(A\) and \(B\). |

Two-block group-algebra (2BGA) codes | 2BGA codes are the smallest LP codes LP\((a,b)\), constructed from a pair of group algebra elements \(a,b\in \mathbb{F}_q[G]\), where \(G\) is a finite group, and \(\mathbb{F}_q\) is a Galois field. For a group of order \(\ell\), we get a 2BGA code of length \(n=2\ell\). A 2BGA code for an Abelian group is called an Abelian 2BGA code. A construction of such codes in terms of Kronecker products of circulant matrices was introduced in [190]. |

Two-component cat code | Code whose codespace is spanned by two coherent states \(\left|\pm\alpha\right\rangle\) for nonzero complex \(\alpha\). |

Two-gauge theory code | A code whose codewords realize lattice two-gauge theory [191–196] for a finite two-group (a.k.a. a crossed module) in arbitrary spatial dimension. There exist several lattice-model formulations in arbitrary spatial dimension [197,198] as well as explicitly in 3D [199–202] and 4D [202], with the 3D case realizing the Yetter model [203–206]. |

Two-mode binomial code | Two-mode constant-energy CLY code whose coefficients are square-roots of binomial coefficients. |

Type-II fractal spin-liquid code | A type-II fracton prime-qudit CSS code defined on a cubic lattice [3; Eqs. (D9-D10)]. |

Union stabilizer (USt) code | A qubit code whose codespace consists of a direct sum of a qubit stabilizer codespace and one or more of that stabilizer code's error spaces. |

Union-Jack color code | Triangular color code defined on a patch of the Tetrakis square tiling (a.k.a. the Union Jack lattice). |

Valence-bond-solid (VBS) code | An \(n\)-qubit approximate \(q\)-dimensional spin code family whose codespace is described in terms of \(SU(q)\) valence-bond-solid (VBS) [207] matrix product states with various boundary conditions. The codes become exact when either \(n\) or \(q\) go to infinity. |

Very small logical qubit (VSLQ) code | The two logical codewords are \(|\pm\rangle \propto (|0\rangle\pm|2\rangle)(|0\rangle\pm|2\rangle)\), where the total Hilbert space is the tensor product of two transmon qudits (whose ground states \(|0\rangle\) and second excited states \(|2\rangle\) are used in the codewords). Since the code is intended to protect against losses, the qutrits can equivalently be thought of as oscillator Fock-state subspaces. |

W-state code | Approximate block quantum code whose encoding resembles the structure of the W state [208]. This code enables universal quantum computation with transversal gates. |

Walker-Wang model code | A 3D topological code defined by a unitary braided fusion category \( \mathcal{C} \) (also known as a unitary premodular category). The code is defined on a cubic lattice that is resolved to be trivalent, with a qudit of dimension \( |\mathcal{C}| \) located at each edge. The codespace is the ground-state subspace of the Walker-Wang model Hamiltonian [209] and realizes the Crane-Yetter model [210–212]. A single-state version of the code provides a resource state for MBQC [183]. |

Wasilewski-Banaszek code | Three-oscillator constant-excitation Fock-state code encoding a single logical qubit. |

X-cube Floquet code | Floquet code whose qubits are placed on vertices of a truncated cubic lattice. Its weight-two check operators are placed on various edges. Its ISG can be that of the X-cube model code or that of several decoupled surface codes. |

X-cube model code | A foliated type-I fracton code supporting a subextensive number of logical qubits. Variants include the membrane-coupled [213], twice-foliated [214], and several generalized [215] X-cube models. |

XP stabilizer code | The XP Stabilizer formalism is a generalization of the XS and Pauli stabilizer formalisms, with stabilizer generators taken from the group \( \mathsf{BD}_{2N}^{\otimes n} = \langle\omega I, X, P\rangle^{\otimes n} \), which is the tensor product of the binary dihedral group of order \(8N\). Here, \(N\) is called the precision, \( \omega \) is a \( 2N \)th root of unity, and \( P = \text{diag} ( 1, \omega^2) \). The codespace is a \(+1\) eigenspace of a set of XP stabilizer generators, which need not commute to define a valid codespace. |

XS stabilizer code | A type of stabilizer code where stabilizer generators are elements of the group \( \{\alpha I, X, \sqrt{Z}]\}^{\otimes n} \), with \( \sqrt{Z} = \text{diag} (1, i)\). The codespace is a joint \(+1\) eigenspace of a set of stabilizer generators, which need not commute to define a valid codespace. |

XY surface code | Non-CSS derivative of the surface code whose generators are \(XXXX\) and \(YYYY\), obtained by mapping \(Z \to Y\) in the surface code. |

XYZ color code | Non-CSS variant of the 6.6.6 color code whose generators are \(XZXZXZ\) and \(ZYZYZY\) Pauli strings associated to each hexagonal in the hexagonal (6.6.6) tiling. A further variation called the domain wall color code admits generators of the form \(XXXZZZ\) and \(ZZZXXX\) [216]. |

XYZ product code | A non-CSS QLDPC code constructed from a particular hypergraph product of three classical codes. The idea is that rather than taking a product of only two classical codes to produce a CSS code, a third classical code is considered, acting with Pauli-\(Y\) operators. When the underlying classical codes are 1D (e.g., repetition codes), the XYZ product yields a 3D code. Higher dimensional versions have been constructed [217]. |

XYZ ruby Floquet code | Floquet code whose qubits are placed on vertices of a ruby lattice. Its weight-two check operators are placed on various edges. One third of the time during its measurement schedule, its ISG is that of the 6.6.6 color code concatenated with a three-qubit repetition code. Together, all ISGs generate the gauge group of the 3F subsystem code. A Floquet code with the same underlying subsystem code but with a different measurement schedule was developed in Ref. [218]. |

XYZ\(^2\) hexagonal stabilizer code | An instance of the matching code based on the Kitaev honeycomb model. It is described on a hexagonal lattice with \(XYZXYZ\) stabilizers on each hexagonal plaquette. Each vertical pair of qubits has an \(XX\), \(YY\), or \(ZZ\) link stabilizer depending on the orientation of the plaquette stabilizers. |

XZZX surface code | Non-CSS variant of the rotated surface code whose generators are \(XZZX\) Pauli strings associated, clock-wise, to the vertices of each face of a two-dimensional lattice (with a qubit located at each vertex of the tessellation). |

Yoked surface code | Member of a family of \([[n,k,d]]\) qubit CSS codes resulting from a concatenation of a QMDPC code with a rotated surface code. Concatenation does not impose additional connectivity constraints and can as much as triple the number of logical qubits per physical qubit when compared to the original surface code. Concatenation with 1D (2D) QMDPC yields codes with twice (four times) the distance. The stabilizer generators of the outer QMDPC code are referred to as yokes in this context. |

Zero-pi qubit code | A \([[2,(0,2),(2,1)]]_{\mathbb{Z}}\) homological rotor code on the smallest tiling of the projective plane \(\mathbb{R}P^2\). The ideal code can be obtained from a four-rotor Josephson-junction [112] system after a choice of grounding [113]. |

\(((10,24,3))\) qubit code | Ten-qubit CWS code that is unique and optimal for its parameters. |

\(((2^m,2^{2^m−5m+1},8))\) Goethals-Preparata code | Member of a family of \(((2^m,2^{2^m−5m+1},8))\) CSS-like union stabilizer codes constructed using the classical Goethals and Preparata codes. |

\(((3,6,2))_{\mathbb{Z}_6}\) Euler code | Six-qudit error-detecting code with logical dimension \(K=6\) that is obtained from a particular AME state that serves as a solution to the 36 officers of Euler problem. The code is obtained from a \(((4,1,3))_{\mathbb{Z}_6}\) code. |

\(((5+2r,3\times 2^{2r+1},2))\) Rains code | Member of a family of \(((5+2r,3\times 2^{2r+1},2))\) CWS codes; see also [220,221][219; Exam. 8]. |

\(((5,3,2))_3\) qutrit code | Smallest qutrit block code realizing the \(\Sigma(360\phi)\) subgroup of \(SU(3)\) transversally. The next smallest code is \(((7,3,2))_3\). |

\(((5,6,2))\) qubit code | Six-qubit cyclic CWS code detecting a single-qubit error. This code has a logical subspace whose dimension is larger than that of the \([[5,2,2]]\) code, the best five-qubit stabilizer code with the same distance [174]. |

\(((7,2,3))\) Pollatsek-Ruskai code | Seven-qubit PI code that realizes gates from the binary icosahedral group transversally. Can also be interpreted as a spin-\(7/2\) single-spin code. The codespace projection is a projection onto an irrep of the binary icosahedral group \(2I\). |

\(((9,12,3))\) qubit code | Nine-qubit cyclic CWS code correcting a single-qubit error. This code has a logical subspace whose dimension is larger than that of the \([[9,3,3]]\) code, the best nine-qubit stabilizer code with the same distance [222]. |

\(((9,2,3))\) Ruskai code | Nine-qubit PI code that protects against single-qubit errors as well as two-qubit errors arising from exchange processes. |

\(((n,1+n(q-1),2))_q\) union stabilizer code | Member of a family of \(((n,1+n(q-1),2))_q\) Galois-qudit union stabilizer code for odd \(n\). |

\(((n,1,2))\) Bravyi-Lee-Li-Yoshida PI code | PI distance-two code on \(n\geq4\) qubits whose degree of entanglement vanishes asymptotically with \(n\) [223; Appx. D] (cf. [224]). |

\((1,3)\) 4D toric code | A generalization of the Kitaev surface code defined on a 4D lattice. The code is called a \((1,3)\) toric code because it admits 1D \(Z\)-type and 3D \(X\)-type logical operators. |

\((5,1,2)\)-convolutional code | Family of quantum convolutional codes that are 1D lattice generalizations of the five-qubit perfect code, with the former''s lattice-translation symmetry being the extension of the latter''s cyclic permutation symmetry. |

\(D\)-dimensional twisted toric code | Extenstion of the Kitaev toric code to higher-dimensional lattices with shifted (a.k.a twisted) boundary conditions. Such boundary conditions yields quibit geometries that are tori \(\mathbb{R}^D/\Lambda\), where \(\Lambda\) is an arbitrary \(D\)-dimensional lattice. Picking a hypercubic lattice yields the ordinary \(D\)-dimensional toric code. It is conjectured that appropriate twisted boundary conditions yield multi-dimensional toric code families with linear distance and logarithmic-weight stabilizer generators [225]. |

\(D_4\) hyper-diamond GKP code | Two-mode GKP qudit-into-oscillator code based on the \(D_4\) hyper-diamond lattice. |

\(G\)-covariant erasure code | A \(G\)-covariant block code that serves as a proof-of-principle construction to demonstrate the existence of \(G\)-covariant codes where \(G\) is a finite group, and the physical space is finite-dimensional. This construction can be done for any erasure-correcting code. |

\(G\)-enriched Walker-Wang model code | A 3D topological code defined by a unitary \(G\)-crossed braided fusion category \( \mathcal{C} \) [226,227], where \(G\) is a finite group. The model realizes TQFTs that include two-gauge theories, those behind Walker-Wang models, as well as the Kashaev TQFT [228,229]. It has been generalized to include domain walls [230]. |

\(SU(3)\) spin code | An extension of Clifford single-spin codes to the group \(SU(3)\), whose codespace is a projection onto a particular irrep of a subgroup of \(SU(3)\) of an underlying spin that houses some particular irrep of \(SU(3)\). |

\(U(d)\)-covariant approximate erasure code | Covariant code whose construction takes in an arbitrary erasure-correcting code to yield an approximate QECC that is also covariant with respect to the unitary group. |

\([[10,1,2]]\) CSS code | Smallest stabilizer code to implement a logical \(T\) gate via application of physical \(T\), \(T^{\dagger}\), and \(CCZ\) gates. |

\([[10,1,4]]_{G}\) tenfold code | A \([[10,1,4]]_{G}\) group code for finite Abelian \(G\). The code is defined using a graph that is closely related to the \([[5,1,3]]\) code. |

\([[11,1,5]]\) quantum dodecacode | Eleven-qubit pure stabilizer code that is the smallest qubit stabilizer code to correct two-qubit errors. |

\([[11,1,5]]_3\) qutrit Golay code | An \([[11,1,5]]_3\) constructed from the ternary Golay code via the CSS construction. The code's stabilizer generator matrix blocks \(H_{X}\) and \(H_{Z}\) are both the generator matrix of the ternary Golay code. |

\([[12,2,4]]\) carbon code | Self-dual twelve-qubit CSS code. |

\([[13,1,5]]\) cyclic code | Thirteen-qubit twisted surface code for which there is a set of stabilizer generators consisting of cyclic permutations of the \(XZZX\)-type Pauli string \(XIZZIXIIIIIII\). The code can be thought of as a small twisted XZZX code [231; Ex. 11 and Fig. 3]. |

\([[144,12,12]]\) gross code | A BB QLDPC code which requires less physical and ancilla qubits (for syndrome extraction) than the surface code with the same number of logical qubits and distance. The name stems from the fact that a gross is a dozen dozen. |

\([[15, 7, 3]]\) quantum Hamming code | Self-dual quantum Hamming code that admits permutation-based CZ logical gates. The code is constructed using the CSS construction from the \([15,11,3]\) Hamming code and its \([15,4,8]\) dual code. |

\([[15,1,3]]\) quantum Reed-Muller code | \([[15,1,3]]\) CSS code that is most easily thought of as a tetrahedral 3D color code. |

\([[16,6,4]]\) Tesseract color code | A 4D color code defined on a tesseract, with stabilizer generators of both types supported on each cube. |

\([[2^D,D,2]]\) hypercube quantum code | Member of a family of codes defined by placing qubits on a \(D\)-dimensional hypercube, \(Z\)-stabilizers on all two-dimensional faces, and an \(X\)-stabilizer on all vertices. These codes realize gates at the \((D-1)\)-st level of the Clifford hierarchy. It can be generalized to a \([[4^D,D,4]]\) error-correcting family [232]. Various other concatenations give families with increasing distance (see cousins). |

\([[2^r, 2^r-r-2, 3]]\) Gottesman code | A family of non-CSS stabilizer codes of distance \(3\) that saturate the asymptotic quantum Hamming bound. |

\([[2^r-1, 2^r-2r-1, 3]]\) quantum Hamming code | Member of a family of self-dual CCS codes constructed from \([2^r-1,2^r-r-1,3]=C_X=C_Z\) Hamming codes and their duals the simplex codes. The code's stabilizer generator matrix blocks \(H_{X}\) and \(H_{Z}\) are both the generator matrix for a simplex code. The weight of each stabilizer generator is \(2^{r-1}\). |

\([[2^r-1, 2^r-2r-1, 3]]_p\) quantum Hamming code | A family of CSS codes extending quantum Hamming codes to prime qudits of dimension \(p\) by expressing the qubit code stabilizers in local-dimension-invariant (LDI) form [233]. |

\([[2^r-1,1,3]]\) simplex code | Member of color-code code family constructed with a punctured first-order RM\((1,m=r)\) \([2^r-1,r+1,2^{r-1}-1]\) code and its even subcode for \(r \geq 3\). Each code transversally implements a diagonal gate at the \((r-1)\)st level of the Clifford hierarchy [234,235]. Each code is a color code defined on a simplex in \(r-1\) dimensions [123,236], where qubits are placed on the vertices, edges, and faces as well as on the simplex itself. |

\([[2^{2r-1}-1,1,2^r-1]]\) quantum punctured Reed-Muller code | Member of CSS code family constructed with a punctured self-dual RM \([2^r-1,2^{r-1},\sqrt{2}^{r-1}-1]\) code and its even subcode for \(r \geq 2\). |

\([[2m,2m-2,2]]\) error-detecting code | Self-complementary CSS code for \(m\geq 2\) with generators \(\{XX\cdots X, ZZ\cdots Z\} \) acting on all \(2m\) physical qubits. The code is constructed via the CSS construction from an SPC code and a repetition code [237; Sec. III]. This is the highest-rate distance-two code when an even number of qubits is used [222]. |

\([[30,8,3]]\) Bring code | A \([[30,8,3]]\) hyperbolic surface code on a quotient of the \(\{5,5\}\) hyperbolic tiling called Bring's curve. Its qubits and stabilizer generators lie on the vertices of the small stellated dodecahedron. Admits a set of weight-five stabilizer generators. |

\([[3k + 8, k, 2]]\) triorthogonal code | Member of the \([[3k + 8, k, 2]]\) family (for even \(k\)) of triorthogonal and quantum divisible codes that admit a transversal \(T\) gate and are relevant for magic-state distillation. |

\([[4,2,2]]\) Four-qubit code | Four-qubit CSS stabilizer code is the smallest qubit stabilizer code to detect a single-qubit error. |

\([[4,2,2]]_{G}\) four group-qudit code | \([[4,2,2]]_{G}\) group quantum code that is an extension of the four-qubit code to group-valued qudits. |

\([[49,1,5]]\) triorthogonal code | Triorthogonal and quantum divisible code which is the smallest distance-five stabilizer code to admit a transversal \(T\) gate [238–240]. Its \(X\)-type stabilizers form a triply even linear binary code in the symplectic representation. |

\([[5,1,2]]\) rotated surface code | Rotated surface code on one rung of a ladder, with one qubit on the rung, and four qubits surrounding it. |

\([[5,1,3]]_q\) Galois-qudit code | True stabilizer code that generalizes the five-qubit perfect code to Galois qudits of prime-power dimension \(q=p^m\). It has \(4(m-1)\) stabilizer generators expressed as \(X_{\gamma} Z_{\gamma} Z_{-\gamma} X_{-\gamma} I\) and its cyclic permutations, with \(\gamma\) iterating over basis elements of \(GF(q)\) over \(GF(p)\). |

\([[5,1,3]]_{\mathbb{R}}\) Braunstein five-mode code | An analog stabilizer version of the five-qubit perfect code, encoding one mode into five and correcting arbitrary errors on any one mode. |

\([[5,1,3]]_{\mathbb{Z}_q}\) modular-qudit code | Modular-qudit stabilizer code that generalizes the five-qubit perfect code using properties of the multiplicative group \(\mathbb{Z}_q\) [241]; see also [242; Thm. 13]. It has four stabilizer generators consisting of \(X Z Z^\dagger X^\dagger I\) and its cyclic permutations. |

\([[6,1,3]]\) Six-qubit stabilizer code | One of two six-qubit distance-three codes that are unique up to equivalence [222], with the other code a trivial extension of the five-qubit code [243]. Stabilizer generators and logical Pauli operators are presented in Ref. [243]. |

\([[6,2,2]]\) \(C_6\) code | Error-detecting self-dual CSS code used in concatenation schemes for fault-tolerant quantum computation. A set of stabilizer generators is \(IIXXXX\) and \(XXIIXX\), together with the same two \(Z\)-type generators. |

\([[6,2,3]]_{q}\) code | Six-qudit MDS error-detecting code defined for Galois-qudit dimension \(q=3\) [244], \(q=2^2\) [245], and \(q \geq 5\) [155,244]. This code cannot exist for qubits (\(q=2\)). |

\([[6,4,2]]\) error-detecting code | Error-detecting six-qubit code with rate \(2/3\) whose codewords are cat/GHZ states. A set of stabilizer generators is \(XXXXXX\) and \(ZZZZZZ\). It is the unique code for its parameters, up to equivalence [222; Tab. III]. Concatenations of this code with itself yield the \([[6^r,4^r,2^r]]\) level-\(r\) many-hypercube code [246]. |

\([[6k+2,3k,2]]\) Campbell-Howard code | Family of \([[6k+2,3k,2]]\) qubit stabilizer codes with quasi-transversal \(CZZ^{\otimes k}\) gates that are relevant to magic-state distillation. |

\([[7, 1:1, 3]]\) hybrid stabilizer code | A distance-three seven-qubit hybrid stabilizer code storing one qubit and one classical bit. Admits a stabilizer generator set with a weight-two generator, which delineates the underlying classical code [247; Eq. (3)]. |

\([[7,1,3]]\) Steane code | A \([[7,1,3]]\) self-dual CSS code that is the smallest qubit CSS code to correct a single-qubit error [243]. The code is constructed using the classical binary \([7,4,3]\) Hamming code for protecting against both \(X\) and \(Z\) errors. |

\([[7,1,3]]\) bare code | A \([[7,1,3]]\) code that admits fault-tolerant syndrome extraction using only one ancilla per stabilizer generator measurement. |

\([[7,1,3]]\) twist-defect surface code | A \([[7,1,3]]\) code (different from the Steane code) that is a small example of a twist-defect surface code. |

\([[7,3,3]]_{q}\) code | Seven-qudit MDS error-detecting code defined for Galois-qudit dimension \(q=3\) [244] and \(q \geq 7\) [155,244]. This code cannot exist for qubits (\(q=2\)). |

\([[8, 2:1, 3]]\) hybrid stabilizer code | A code obtained from the \([[8,3,3]]\) Gottesman code by using one of its logical qubits as a classical bit. One can also use two logical qubits as classical bits, obtaining an \([[8,1:2,3]]\) hybrid stabilizer code. |

\([[8, 3, 3]]\) Eight-qubit Gottesman code | Eight-qubit non-degenerate code that can be obtained from a modified CSS construction using the \([8,4,4]\) extended Hamming code and a \([8,7,2]\) even-weight code [248]. The modification introduces signs between the codewords. |

\([[8,2,2]]\) hyperbolic color code | An \([[8,2,2]]\) hyperbolic color code defined on the projective plane. |

\([[8,3,2]]\) CSS code | Smallest 3D color code whose physical qubits lie on vertices of a cube and which admits a (weakly) transversal CCZ gate. |

\([[9,1,3]]\) Shor code | Nine-qubit CSS code that is the first quantum error-correcting code. |

\([[9,1,3]]_{\mathbb{R}}\) Lloyd-Slotine code | An analog stabilizer version of Shor's nine-qubit code, encoding one mode into nine and correcting arbitrary errors on any one mode. |

\([[9,1,3]]_{\mathbb{Z}_q}\) modular-qudit code | Modular-qudit CSS code that generalizes the \([[9,1,3]]\) Shor code using properties of the multiplicative group \(\mathbb{Z}_q\). |

\([[9,1,5]]_3\) quantum Glynn code | Nine-qutrit pure Hermitian code that is the smallest qutrit stabilizer code to correct two-qutrit errors. |

\([[9m-k,k,2]]_3\) triorthogonal code | Member of the \([[9m-k,k,2]]_3\) family of triorthogonal qutrit codes (for \(k\leq 3m-2\)) that admit a transversal diagonal gate in the third level of the qudit Clifford hierarchy and that are relevant for magic-state distillation. |

\([[k+4,k,2]]\) H code | Family of \([[k+4,k,2]]\) self-dual CSS codes (for even \(k\)) with transversal Hadamard gates that are relevant to magic state distillation. The four stablizer generators are \(X_1X_2X_3X_4\), \(Z_1Z_2Z_3Z_4\), \(X_1X_2X_5X_6...X_{k+4}\), and \(Z_1Z_2Z_5Z_6...Z_{k+4}\).' |

\(\chi^{(2)}\) code | A \(3n\)-mode bosonic Fock-state code that requires only linear optics and the \(\chi^{(2)}\) optical nonlinear interaction for encoding, decoding, and logical gates. Codewords lie in Fock-state subspaces that are invariant under Hermitian combinations of the \(\chi^{(2)}\) nonlinearities \(abc^\dagger\) and \(i abc^\dagger\), where \(a\), \(b\), and \(c\) are lowering operators acting on one of the \(n\) triples of modes on which the codes are defined. Codewords are also \(+1\) eigenstates of stabilizer-like symmetry operators, and photon parities are error syndromes. |

\(\mathbb{Z}_3\times\mathbb{Z}_9\)-fusion subsystem code | Modular-qudit 2D subsystem stabilizer code whose low-energy excitations realize a non-modular anyon theory with \(\mathbb{Z}_3\times\mathbb{Z}_9\) fusion rules. Encodes two qutrits when put on a torus. |

\(\mathbb{Z}_q^{(1)}\) subsystem code | Modular-qudit subsystem code, based on the Kitaev honeycomb model [98] and its generalization [249], that is characterized by the \(\mathbb{Z}_q^{(1)}\) anyon theory [250], which is modular for odd prime \(q\) and non-modular otherwise. Encodes a single \(q\)-dimensional qudit when put on a torus for odd \(q\), and a \(q/2\)-dimensional qudit for even \(q\). This code can be constructed using geometrically local gauge generators, but does not admit geometrically local stabilizer generators. For \(q=2\), the code reduces to the subsystem code underlying the Kitaev honeycomb model code as well as the honeycomb Floquet code. |

\(k\)-orthogonal code | Qubit stabilizer code whose \(X\)-type logicals and generators form a \(k\)-orthogonal matrix (defined below) in the symplectic representation. In other words, the overlap between any \(k\) \(X\)-type code-preserving Paulis (including the identity) is even. The original definition is for qubit CSS codes [124], but it can be extended to more general qubit stabilizer codes [251; Def. 1]. This entry is formulated for qubits, but an extension exists for modular qudits [124]. |

Æ code | Code defined in a single angular-momentum subspace that is embedded in a larger direct-sum space of different angular momenta, which can arise from combinations of spin, electronic, or rotational, or nuclear angular momenta of an atom or molecule. A code is obtained by solving an over-constrained system of equations, and many solutions can be mapped into existing codes defined on other state spaces. |

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