## Description

## Protection

Many of the state fidelity conditions that hold exactly for (exact) QECCs can be shown to hold up to some error \(\epsilon\) for approximate QECCs.

### Entanglement fidelity

Let \(f(\rho_1,\rho_2)\) be the fidelity between quantum states. Let entanglement fidelity between channels \(\mathcal{N}\) and \(\mathcal{M}\) be defined as \begin{align} F_{\rho}(\mathcal{N},\mathcal{M}) =f((\mathcal{N}\otimes\mathrm{id})\ket{\psi}\bra{\psi},(\mathcal{M}\otimes\mathrm{id})\ket{\psi}\bra{\psi})~, \tag*{(1)}\end{align} where \(\ket{\psi}\) is a purification of the mixed state \(\rho\). The worst-case entaglement fidelity is then defined as \begin{align} F(\mathcal{N},\mathcal{M})=\min_{\rho} F_{\rho}(\mathcal{N},\mathcal{M})~. \tag*{(2)}\end{align}

Now, based on the Bures distance and worst case entaglement fidelity, we define \begin{align} d(\mathcal{N},\mathcal{M})=\sqrt{1-F(\mathcal{N},\mathcal{M})} \tag*{(3)}\end{align} as a measure of distance between quantum channels [6].

Given some encoding map \(\mathcal{U}\) and some noise channel \(\mathcal{E}\), the code described by \(\mathcal{U}\) is \(\epsilon\)-correctable if there exists some quantum channel \(\mathcal{D}\) such that \begin{align} d(\mathcal{D}\mathcal{E}\mathcal{U}(\rho),\rho)\leq \epsilon \tag*{(4)}\end{align} for all logical states \(\rho\) [6].

### Complementary channel formulation

Given a noise channel \(\mathcal{E}\), there exists a recovery channel \(\mathcal{D}\) such that \(F(\mathcal{D}\mathcal{E},\mathrm{id})=1-\epsilon\) iff there exists some \(\mathcal{D}'\) such that for complementary channel \(\mathcal{E}^C\), \(F(\mathcal{E}^C,\mathcal{D}')=1-\epsilon\) and \(D'(\rho)=\rho_0\) for some fixed \(\rho_0\). Note that \(F\) denotes worst case entaglement fidelity between channels.

We can generalize this by replacing \(\mathrm{id}\) with some channel \(M\). Given noise channel \(\mathcal{E}\), there exists a recovery channel \(\mathcal{D}\) such that \(F(\mathcal{D}\mathcal{E},\mathcal{M})=1-\epsilon\) iff there exists some \(\mathcal{D}'\) such that for complementary channel \(\mathcal{E}^C\), \(F(\mathcal{E}^C,\mathcal{D}'\mathcal{M}^C)=1-\epsilon\) [6].

### Necessary and sufficient approximate error-correction conditions

Analogously to the Knill-Laflamme conditions for (exact) QECCs, there exist various formulations of necessary and sufficient conditions for approximate error correction to determine if some code is \(\epsilon\)-correctable under a noise channel.

Necessary and sufficient conditions for approximate error correction can also be expressed in terms of complementary channels. Given some code defined by projector \(\Pi = U U^\dagger\), \(\Pi\) is \(\epsilon\)-correctable with respect to some noise channel \(\mathcal{E}\) if \begin{align} \Pi E_i^{\dagger}E_j \Pi =\lambda_{ij}\Pi +\Pi B_{ij}\Pi ~, \tag*{(5)}\end{align} where \(\Lambda(\rho)=\mathrm{Tr}(\rho)\sum_{ij} \lambda_{ij}|i\rangle\langle j|\) is a density operator, \begin{align} (\Lambda+B)(\rho)=\Lambda(\rho)+\sum_{ij}\mathrm{Tr}(\rho B_{ij})|i\rangle\langle j| \tag*{(6)}\end{align} is the output state of the complementary noise channel \(\mathcal{E}^C = \Lambda+B\), and the Bures distance \(d(\Lambda+B,\Lambda)\le\epsilon\) [6]. An alternative measure, the AQEC relative entropy, measures the relative entropy between \(\Lambda + B\) and \(\Lambda\) [8].

In addition to the necessary and sufficient error correction conditions, there exist sufficient conditions for AQECCs. Given a noise channel \(\mathcal{U}(\rho)=\sum_{n} A_n \rho A_n^{\dagger}\) where \(\forall{n}\), \(A_n\) is a Kraus operator, and code projector \(\Pi \), express the following using polar decomposition, \(A_n \Pi =U_n \sqrt{\Pi A_n^{\dagger}A_n \Pi }\), and let \(p_n\) and \(p_n\lambda_n\) be the largest and smallest eigenvalues for \(\Pi A_n^{\dagger}A_n \Pi \). Then, we are guaranteed that if \begin{align}\Pi U_m^{\dagger}U_n \Pi =\delta_{mn} \Pi \land p_n(1-\lambda_n)\le O(f(\epsilon))\tag*{(7)}\end{align} we have a fidelity \(F \geq 1-O(f(\epsilon))\) after recovery [1].

### Universal subspace AQECCs and alpha-bits

Universal subspace approximate error correction is a type of approximate error correction that quantifies protection of information stored in (strict) subspaces of a logical space.

Given a subspace of a Hilbert space \(\mathsf{S}\) of dimension \(d\), noise channel \(\mathcal{E}\), and encoding \(\mathcal{U}\), we define the subspace as an \(\alpha\)-dit with error \(\epsilon\) if, for all subspaces \(\tilde{\mathsf{S}}\) of dimension less than or equal to \(d^{\alpha}+1\), there exists some channel \(\tilde{\mathcal{D}}\) such that \begin{align}||(\tilde{\mathcal{D}}\circ \mathcal{E}\circ \mathcal{U})|\psi\rangle-|\psi\rangle||_1\leq \epsilon\tag*{(8)}\end{align} for all \(|\psi\rangle\in \tilde{\mathsf{S}}\) [7].

Generalizing the notion of quantum information transmission and capacity of (exact) QECCs, one can achieve an \(\alpha\)-bit transmission rate \(r\) quantum channel \(\mathcal{E}\) iff, for sufficiently large \(d\) and \(n\), and for all \(\epsilon>0\), the channel \(\mathcal{E}^{\otimes n}\) is able to transmit \begin{align}\left\lceil \frac{n r}{\log(d)} \right\rceil\quad \textup{\(\alpha\)-dits}\tag*{(9)}\end{align} with total error \(\epsilon\) across those \(\alpha\)-dits. The \(\alpha\)-bit capacity \(Q\) of \(\mathcal{E}\) is defined as the supremum of achievable transmission rates [7].

### Circuit complexity

One can relate robustness of an approximate quantum code to the quantum circuit complexity [9–12] of creating states in the codespace. For a family of block codes, scaling as order \(O(k/n)\) of a code parameter called the subsystem variance characterizes the transition between code subspaces with low and high circuit complexity [13].

## Rate

## Encoding

## Decoding

## Notes

## Parents

## Children

- Matrix-model code — Matrix-model codes approximately protect against gauge-invariant errors in the large-mode limit.
- Squeezed fock-state code — The squeezed Fock-state code approximately protects against loss and dephasing errors, becoming exact in the \(r\to\infty\) limit.
- \(U(d)\)-covariant approximate erasure code
- W-state code — The W-state code approximately protects against a single erasure while allowing for a universal transversal set of gates.
- SYK code — SYK codes are approximately error correcting in that they satisfy certain error-correction conditions based on mutual information [25].
- Eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) code — ETH codes approximately protect against erasures in the thermodynamic limit.
- Matrix-product state (MPS) code — MPS codes approximately protect against erasures in the thermodynamic limit.
- Neural network code
- Singleton-bound approaching AQECC
- Landau-level spin code — The Landau-level spin code approximately protects against rotational errors.

## Cousins

- Renormalization group (RG) cat code — RG cat codes approximately protect against displacements that represent ultraviolet coherent operators.
- Numerically optimized bosonic code — Numerically optimized codes arising from optimization routines are often approximate QECCs.
- Qudit-into-oscillator code — Approximate QEC techniques of finding the entanglement fidelity can be adapted to bosonic codes with a finite-dimensional codespace [26].
- Square-lattice GKP code — Square-lattice GKP codes approximately protect against photon loss [26–28].
- Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill (GKP) code — Approximate error-correction offered by GKP codes yields achievable rates that are a constant away from the capacity of Guassian loss channels [28–31].
- Covariant code — Normalizable constructions of infinite-dimensional \(G\)-covariant codes for continuous \(G\) are approximately error-correcting.
- Holographic code — Universal subspace approximate error correction is used to model black holes [32].
- Quantum low-weight check (QLWC) code — A family of approximate non-stabilizer QLWC codes with linear distance and rate has been constructed [33] using unary codes that arise from the Feynman-Kitaev clock construction [34].
- Local Haar-random circuit qubit code
- GNU permutation-invariant code — GNU codes protect approximately against amplitude damping errors.
- \([[4,2,2]]\) CSS code — The \([[4,1,2]]\) subcodes \(\{|\overline{00}\rangle,|\overline{10}\rangle\}\) [1] and \(\{|\overline{01}\rangle,|\overline{11}\rangle\}\) [35] approximately correct a single amplitude damping error, with the latter being a constant excitation code.
- Approximate secret-sharing code — Secret-sharing codes approximately correct errors on up to \(\lfloor (n-1)/2 \rfloor\) errors.

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## Cite as:

“Approximate quantum error-correcting code (AQECC)”, The Error Correction Zoo (V. V. Albert & P. Faist, eds.), 2023. https://errorcorrectionzoo.org/c/approximate_qecc