Here is a list of cyclic codes.

Code | Description |
---|---|

Binary BCH code | Cyclic binary code of odd length \(n\) whose zeroes are consecutive powers of a primitive \(n\)th root of unity \(\alpha\) (see Cyclic-to-polynomial correspondence). More precisely, the generator polynomial of a BCH code of designed distance \(\delta\geq 1\) is the lowest-degree monic polynomial with zeroes \(\{\alpha^b,\alpha^{b+1},\cdots,\alpha^{b+\delta-2}\}\) for some \(b\geq 0\). BCH codes are called narrow-sense when \(b=1\), and are called primitive when \(n=2^r-1\) for some \(r\geq 2\). |

Binary duadic code | Member of a pair of cyclic linear binary codes that satisfy certain relations, depending on whether the pair is even-like or odd-like duadic. Duadic codes exist for lengths \(n\) that are products of powers of primes, with each prime being \(\pm 1\) modulo \(8\) [1]. |

Binary quadratic-residue (QR) code | Member of a quadruple of cyclic binary codes of prime length \(n=8m\pm 1\) for \(m\geq 1\) constructed using quadratic residues and nonresidues of \(n\). |

Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem (BCH) code | Cyclic \(q\)-ary code, with \(n\) and \(q\) relatively coprime, whose zeroes are consecutive powers of a primitive \(n\)th root of unity \(\alpha\). More precisely, the generator polynomial of a BCH code of designed distance \(\delta\geq 1\) is the lowest-degree monic polynomial with zeroes \(\{\alpha^b,\alpha^{b+1},\cdots,\alpha^{b+\delta-2}\}\) for some \(b\geq 0\). BCH codes are called narrow-sense when \(b=1\), and are called primitive when \(n=q^r-1\) for some \(r\geq 2\). |

Cyclic code | A code of length \(n\) over an alphabet is cyclic if, for each codeword \(c_1 c_2 \cdots c_n\), the cyclically shifted string \(c_n c_1 \cdots c_{n-1}\) is also a codeword. |

Cyclic linear \(q\)-ary code | A \(q\)-ary code of length \(n\) is cyclic if, for each codeword \(c_1 c_2 \cdots c_n\), the cyclically shifted string \(c_n c_1 \cdots c_{n-1}\) is also a codeword. A cyclic code is called primitive when \(n=q^r-1\) for some \(r\geq 2\). A shortened cyclic code is obtained from a cyclic code by taking only codewords with the first \(j\) zero entries, and deleting those zeroes. |

Cyclic linear binary code | A binary code of length \(n\) is cyclic if, for each codeword \(c_1 c_2 \cdots c_n\), the cyclically shifted string \(c_n c_1 \cdots c_{n-1}\) is also a codeword. A cyclic code is called primitive when \(n=2^r-1\) for some \(r\geq 2\). A shortened cyclic code is obtained from a cyclic code by taking only codewords with the first \(j\) zero entries, and deleting those zeroes. |

Cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code | A generalization of the single parity-check code in which the generalization of the parity bit is the remainder of the data string (mapped into a polynomial via the Cyclic-to-polynomial correspondence) divided by some generator polynomial. A notable family of codes is referred to as CRC-(\(m-1\)), where \(m\) is the length of the generator polynomial. |

Difference-set cyclic (DSC) code | Cyclic LDPC code constructed deterministically from a difference set. Certain DCS codes satisfy more redundant constraints than Gallager codes and thus can outperform them [2]. |

Golay code | A \([23, 12, 7]\) perfect binary linear code with connections to various areas of mathematics, e.g., lattices [3] and sporadic simple groups [4]. Adding a parity bit to the code results in the \([24, 12, 8]\) extended Golay code. Up to equivalence, both codes are unique for their respective parameters [5]. Shortening the Golay code yields the \([22,10,8]\), \([22,11,7]\), and \([22,12,6]\) shortened Golay codes [6]. The dual of the Golay code is its \([23,11,8]\) even-weight subcode [7,8]. |

Gold code | Member of the family of \([2^r-1, 2r ]\) cyclic binary linear codes characterized by the generator polynomial of degree \(r\) of two maximum-period sequences of period \(2^r-1\) with absolute cross-correlation \( \leq 2^{(r+2)/2}\). Gold codewords are generated using \(m\)-sequences \(x\) and \(y\), which are codewords of simplex codes with check polynomials of degree \(r\) [9]. |

Hexacode | The \([6,3,4]_4\) self-dual MDS code that has connections to projective geometry, lattices [3], and conformal field theory [10]. Puncturing the code yields the perfect \([5,3,3]_4\) quaternary Hamming code known as the shortened hexacode or shorter hexacode [11]. Both codes are sometimes refereed to as Golay codes over \(GF(4)\). |

Kasami code | Member of the family of \([2^{2r}-1, 3r, 2^{2r-1} - 2^{r-1} ]\) cyclic binary linear codes. |

Melas code | Cyclic \([2^m -1, 2^m - 1 - 2m, 5]\) linear code with generator polynomial is \(g(x) = p(x)p(x)^{\star}\), where \(p(x)\) is a primitive polynomial of degree \(m\) that is the minimal polynomial over \(GF(2)\) of an element \(\alpha\) of order \(2^m -1\) in \(GF(2^m)\), \(m\) is odd and greater that five, and '\(\star\)' denotes reciprocation [12]. |

Octacode | The unique self-dual linear code of length 8 and Lee distance 6 over \(\mathbb{Z}_4\) with generator matrix \begin{align} \begin{pmatrix} 3 & 3 & 2 & 3 & 1 & 0 & 0 & 0\\ 3 & 0 & 3 & 2 & 3 & 1 & 0 & 0\\ 3 & 0 & 0 & 3 & 2 & 3 & 1 & 0\\ 3 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 3 & 2 & 3 & 1 \end{pmatrix}\,. \tag*{(1)}\end{align} |

One-hot code | A length-\(n\) binary code whose codewords are those with Hamming weight one. The reverse of this code, where all codewords have Hamming weight \(n-1\) is called a one-cold code. |

Repetition code | \([n,1,n]\) binary linear code encoding one bit of information into an \(n\)-bit string. The length \(n\) needs to be an odd number, since the receiver will pick the majority to recover the information. The idea is to increase the code distance by repeating the logical information several times. It is a \((n,1)\)-Hamming code. Its automorphism group is \(S_n\). |

Single parity-check (SPC) code | An \([n,n-1,2]\) linear binary code whose codewords consist of the message string appended with a parity-check bit or parity bit such that the parity (i.e., sum over all coordinates of each codeword) is zero. If the Hamming weight of a message is odd (even), then the parity bit is one (zero). This code requires only one extra bit of overhead and is therefore inexpensive. Its codewords are all even-weight binary strings. Its automorphism group is \(S_n\). |

Ternary Golay code | A \([11,6,5]_3\) perfect ternary linear code with connections to various areas of mathematics, e.g., lattices [3] and sporadic simple groups [4]. Adding a parity bit to the code results in the self-dual \([12,6,6]_3\) extended ternary Golay code. Up to equivalence, both codes are unique for their respective parameters [5]. The dual of the ternary Golay code is a \([11,5,6]_3\) projective two-weight subcode. |

Zetterberg code | Family of binary cyclic \([2^{2s}+1,2^{2s}-4s+1]\) codes with distance \(d>5\) generated by the minimal polynomial \(g_s(x)\) of \(\alpha\) over \(GF(2)\), where \(\alpha\) is a primitive \(n\)th root of unity in the field \(GF(2^{4s})\). They are quasi-perfect codes and are one of the best known families of double-error correcting binary linear codes |

\([2^r-1,2^r-r-1,3]\) Hamming code | Member of an infinite family of perfect linear codes with parameters \([2^r-1,2^r-r-1, 3]\) for \(r \geq 2\). Their \(r \times (2^r-1) \) parity-check matrix \(H\) has all possible non-zero \(r\)-bit strings as its columns. Adding a parity check yields the \([2^r,2^r-r-1, 4]\) extended Hamming code. |

\([48,24,12]\) self-dual code | An extended quadratic-residue code that is known to be the only self-dual doubly-even code at its parameters [13]. |

\([7,4,3]\) Hamming code | Second-smallest member of the Hamming code family. |

\(q\)-ary duadic code | Member of a pair of cyclic linear binary codes that satisfy certain relations, depending on whether the pair is even-like or odd-like duadic. Duadic codes exist only when \(q\) is a square modulo \(n\) [1]. |

\(q\)-ary parity-check code | Also known as a sum-zero or zero-sum code. An \([n,n-1,2]_q\) linear \(q\)-ary code whose codewords consist of the message string appended with a parity-check or zero-sum check digit such that the sum over all coordinates of each codeword is zero. |

\(q\)-ary quadratic-residue (QR) code | Member of a quadruple of cyclic \(q\)-ary codes of prime length \(n\) where \(q\) is prime and a quadratic residue modulo \(n\). The codes are constructed using quadratic residues and nonresidues of \(n\). |

\(q\)-ary repetition code | \([n,1,n]_q\) binary linear code encoding consisting of codewords \((j,j,\cdots,j)\) for \(j \in GF(q)\). The length \(n\) needs to be an odd number, since the receiver will pick the majority to recover the information. |

## References

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- S. K. Houghten et al., “The extended quadratic residue code is the only (48,24,12) self-dual doubly-even code”, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 49, 53 (2003) DOI