Error-corrected sensing code[1,2] 


Code that can be obtained via an optimization procedure that ensures correction against a set \(\cal{E}\) of errors as well as guaranteeting optimal precision in locally estimating a parameter using a noiseless ancilla. For tensor-product spaces consisting of \(n\) subsystems (e.g., qubits, modular qudits, or Galois qudits), the procedure can yield a code whose parameter estimation precision satisfies Heisenberg scaling, i.e., scales quadratically with the number \(n\) of subsystems.

The conditions required for a code are that it corrects errors in the set \(\cal{E}\) and admits a continuous-parameter \(U(1)\) group of logical gates generated by some signal Hamiltonian \(H\) (with the time of evolution by \(H\) the parameter that is to be estimated). This means that \(H\) cannot itself be a detectable error, i.e., \(H\) cannot be expressed as a linear combination of the errors, a condition known as the Hamiltonian-not-in-Kraus-span condition [3] (alternatively, Hamiltonian-not-in-Lindblad-span for Markovian noise [2]; see also [4]). If these conditions are satisfied, a semidefinite-program based optimization procedure yields a metrologically optimal code. The procedure has been generalized to more general groups, corresponding to multiparameter estimation [5]. If these conditions are not satisfied, Heisenberg scaling is not achievable, but metrologically optimal codes can still be obtained via another semidefinite-program based optimization procedure [3,6].

Metrologically optimal QECCs require error-free ancillas for optimal local parameter estimation using an entangling gate. In this sense, such codes can be thought of as being entanglement-assisted. Ancilla-free versions exist in the case when the noise commutes with the signal Hamiltonian [7,8].


A single physical qubit entangled with an NV spin was used to measure an incoming signal in a way that bit-flip errors on the qubit were correctable [9].




  • Entanglement-assisted (EA) QECC — Metrologically optimal codes can be thought of as being entanglement-assisted because they require error-free ancillas for optimal local parameter estimation, and the estimation procedure uses an entangling gate.
  • Hamiltonian-based code — Metrologically optimal codes admit a \(U(1)\) set of gates generated by a signal Hamiltonian \(H\), meaning that there exists a basis of codewords that are eigenstates of the \(H\).
  • Metrological code — Error-corrected sensing codes are required to satisfy the Knill-Laflamme conditions, while metrological codes need only satisfy the conditions partially.
  • GNU PI code — GNU codes can be used to sense signals within the PI subspace [10].


R. Demkowicz-Dobrzański, J. Czajkowski, and P. Sekatski, “Adaptive Quantum Metrology under General Markovian Noise”, Physical Review X 7, (2017) arXiv:1704.06280 DOI
S. Zhou et al., “Achieving the Heisenberg limit in quantum metrology using quantum error correction”, Nature Communications 9, (2018) arXiv:1706.02445 DOI
S. Zhou and L. Jiang, “Asymptotic Theory of Quantum Channel Estimation”, PRX Quantum 2, (2021) arXiv:2003.10559 DOI
S. Zhou, “Limits of noisy quantum metrology with restricted quantum controls”, (2024) arXiv:2402.18765
W. Górecki et al., “Optimal probes and error-correction schemes in multi-parameter quantum metrology”, Quantum 4, 288 (2020) arXiv:1901.00896 DOI
S. Zhou and L. Jiang, “Optimal approximate quantum error correction for quantum metrology”, Physical Review Research 2, (2020) arXiv:1910.08472 DOI
D. Layden et al., “Ancilla-Free Quantum Error Correction Codes for Quantum Metrology”, Physical Review Letters 122, (2019) arXiv:1811.01450 DOI
S. Zhou, A. G. Manes, and L. Jiang, “Achieving metrological limits using ancilla-free quantum error-correcting codes”, Physical Review A 109, (2024) arXiv:2303.00881 DOI
T. Unden et al., “Quantum Metrology Enhanced by Repetitive Quantum Error Correction”, Physical Review Letters 116, (2016) arXiv:1602.07144 DOI
Y. Ouyang and G. K. Brennen, “Finite-round quantum error correction on symmetric quantum sensors”, (2024) arXiv:2212.06285
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Zoo Code ID: metopt

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“Error-corrected sensing code”, The Error Correction Zoo (V. V. Albert & P. Faist, eds.), 2024.
@incollection{eczoo_metopt, title={Error-corrected sensing code}, booktitle={The Error Correction Zoo}, year={2024}, editor={Albert, Victor V. and Faist, Philippe}, url={} }
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“Error-corrected sensing code”, The Error Correction Zoo (V. V. Albert & P. Faist, eds.), 2024.