Bosonic c-q code 

Root code for the Bosonic/analog c-q Kingdom


Bosonic code designed for transmission of classical information through non-classical channels.


The Holevo capacity has been calculated for various bosonic quantum channels [13] such as the lossy bosonic channel [4] or quantum AGWN [5]. The energy-constrained capacity of the noiseless bosonic c-q channel is finite due to quantum effects [6,7], while the Shannon capacity can be infinite. Gordon was the first to calculate such capacities (in a published work) for a specific case [810], and a related discussion is given by Forney [11]. The most information-efficient format of a transmitted message is inditsinguishable from black-body radiation [12].




  • Bosonic code — Bosonic c-q codes are bosonic codes designed to transmit classical information.


J. H. Shapiro, “The Quantum Theory of Optical Communications”, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 15, 1547 (2009) DOI
K. Banaszek et al., “Quantum Limits in Optical Communications”, Journal of Lightwave Technology 38, 2741 (2020) arXiv:2002.05766 DOI
A. S. Holevo, “Quantum Systems, Channels, Information”, (2019) DOI
V. Giovannetti et al., “Classical Capacity of the Lossy Bosonic Channel: The Exact Solution”, Physical Review Letters 92, (2004) arXiv:quant-ph/0308012 DOI
V. Giovannetti et al., “Ultimate classical communication rates of quantum optical channels”, Nature Photonics 8, 796 (2014) arXiv:1312.6225 DOI
H. P. Yuen and M. Ozawa, “Ultimate information carrying limit of quantum systems”, Physical Review Letters 70, 363 (1993) DOI
C. M. Caves and P. D. Drummond, “Quantum limits on bosonic communication rates”, Reviews of Modern Physics 66, 481 (1994) DOI
J. P. Gordon, in Advances in Quantum Electronics edited by J. R. Singer (Columbia University, New York, 1961), p. 509
J. Gordon, “Quantum Effects in Communications Systems”, Proceedings of the IRE 50, 1898 (1962) DOI
J.P. Gordon, in Quantum Electronics and Coherent Light, Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi," Course XXXI, edited by PA. Miles (Academic, New York, 1964), p. 156.
G.D. Forney, Jr., S.M. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1963 (unpublished).
M. Lachmann, M. E. J. Newman, and C. Moore, “The physical limits of communication or Why any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from noise”, American Journal of Physics 72, 1290 (2004) arXiv:cond-mat/9907500 DOI
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Zoo Code ID: bosonic_classical_into_quantum

Cite as:
“Bosonic c-q code”, The Error Correction Zoo (V. V. Albert & P. Faist, eds.), 2023.
@incollection{eczoo_bosonic_classical_into_quantum, title={Bosonic c-q code}, booktitle={The Error Correction Zoo}, year={2023}, editor={Albert, Victor V. and Faist, Philippe}, url={} }
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“Bosonic c-q code”, The Error Correction Zoo (V. V. Albert & P. Faist, eds.), 2023.