## Description

## Protection

Provides protection against errors due to thermal noise and destructive interference arising from traversing an environment with scattering, reflection, and/or refraction.

Transmission occurs from \(n\) transmitting antennas to \(m\) receiving antennas and is performed \(t\) times. The typical noise model, a fading channel [5], multiplies an incoming codeword by an \(m \times n\) fading matrix or damping matrix \(H\) and adds random (typically Gaussian) noise using an \(n \times t\) matrix \(Z\), \begin{align} X\to HX+Z = Y~. \tag*{(1)}\end{align} If \(H\) is known (unknown) to the receiver, then the receiver is called coherent (incoherent).

Decoding corresponding to choosing the codeword \(X\) that, when transformed under the channel, is closest to the corrupted output \(Y\) in the Frobenius norm, \begin{align} \min_{X\in C}\|Y-HX\|^{2}~. \tag*{(2)}\end{align}

## Rate

## Realizations

## Parent

- Spacetime code (STC) — Spacetime codes also use spatial and temporal diversity, but do not necessarily use blocks as codewords.

## Children

- Linear STC
- Orthogonal Spacetime Block Code (OSTBC) — The same construction without the constraint that the codeword matrices are orthogonal.
- Multi-channel group-orbit code

## References

- [1]
- B. L. Hughes, “Differential space-time modulation”, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 46, 2567 (2000) DOI
- [2]
- B. M. Hochwald et al., “Systematic design of unitary space-time constellations”, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 46, 1962 (2000) DOI
- [3]
- B. M. Hochwald and T. L. Marzetta, “Unitary space-time modulation for multiple-antenna communications in Rayleigh flat fading”, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 46, 543 (2000) DOI
- [4]
- B. M. Hochwald and W. Sweldens, “Differential unitary space-time modulation”, IEEE Transactions on Communications 48, 2041 (2000) DOI
- [5]
- E. Biglieri, J. Proakis, and S. Shamai, “Fading channels: information-theoretic and communications aspects”, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 44, 2619 (1998) DOI
- [6]
- R. Vidhya Lavanya and M. Madheswaran, “Wimax (IEEE 802.16 m) system based on space time block code and discrete multiwavelet transform and implementation in FPGA”, Telecommunication Systems 56, 327 (2013) DOI
- [7]
- S. P. Alex and L. M. A. Jalloul, “Performance Evaluation of MIMO in IEEE802.16e/WiMAX”, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing 2, 181 (2008) DOI
- [8]
- “Advances in smart antennas - MIMO-OFDM wireless systems: basics, perspectives, and challenges”, IEEE Wireless Communications 13, 31 (2006) DOI

## Page edit log

- Richard Barney (2022-04-05) — most recent

## Cite as:

“Spacetime block code (STBC)”, The Error Correction Zoo (V. V. Albert & P. Faist, eds.), 2022. https://errorcorrectionzoo.org/c/spacetime_block