Spacetime block code (STBC)[14] 

Description

In a space-time block code, \(n\) spatially separated channels transmit symbols to \(m\) receiving channel using \(T\) time slots. These symbols can be arranged in a \(n \times T\) matrix where the rows correspond to the channels, and the columns correspond to the time slots. The codewords \(\{X\}\) maing up the code are thus \(n \times T\) matrices.

Protection

Provides protection against errors due to thermal noise and destructive interference arising from traversing an environment with scattering, reflection, and/or refraction.

Transmission occurs from \(n\) transmitting antennas to \(m\) receiving antennas and is performed \(t\) times. The typical noise model, a fading channel [5], multiplies an incoming codeword by an \(m \times n\) fading matrix or damping matrix \(H\) and adds random (typically Gaussian) noise using an \(n \times t\) matrix \(Z\), \begin{align} X\to HX+Z = Y~. \tag*{(1)}\end{align} If \(H\) is known (unknown) to the receiver, then the receiver is called coherent (incoherent).

Decoding corresponding to choosing the codeword \(X\) that, when transformed under the channel, is closest to the corrupted output \(Y\) in the Frobenius norm, \begin{align} \min_{X\in C}\|Y-HX\|^{2}~. \tag*{(2)}\end{align}

Rate

A spacetime block code is said to be full rate when \(k = m t\), where \(k\) is the number of information symbolds encoded in its codewords.

Realizations

High data-rate wireless communication, e.g., WiMAX (IEEE 802.16m) [68].

Parent

  • Spacetime code (STC) — Spacetime codes also use spatial and temporal diversity, but do not necessarily use blocks as codewords.

Children

References

[1]
B. L. Hughes, “Differential space-time modulation”, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 46, 2567 (2000) DOI
[2]
B. M. Hochwald et al., “Systematic design of unitary space-time constellations”, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 46, 1962 (2000) DOI
[3]
B. M. Hochwald and T. L. Marzetta, “Unitary space-time modulation for multiple-antenna communications in Rayleigh flat fading”, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 46, 543 (2000) DOI
[4]
B. M. Hochwald and W. Sweldens, “Differential unitary space-time modulation”, IEEE Transactions on Communications 48, 2041 (2000) DOI
[5]
E. Biglieri, J. Proakis, and S. Shamai, “Fading channels: information-theoretic and communications aspects”, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 44, 2619 (1998) DOI
[6]
R. Vidhya Lavanya and M. Madheswaran, “Wimax (IEEE 802.16 m) system based on space time block code and discrete multiwavelet transform and implementation in FPGA”, Telecommunication Systems 56, 327 (2013) DOI
[7]
S. P. Alex and L. M. A. Jalloul, “Performance Evaluation of MIMO in IEEE802.16e/WiMAX”, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing 2, 181 (2008) DOI
[8]
“Advances in smart antennas - MIMO-OFDM wireless systems: basics, perspectives, and challenges”, IEEE Wireless Communications 13, 31 (2006) DOI
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Zoo Code ID: spacetime_block

Cite as:
“Spacetime block code (STBC)”, The Error Correction Zoo (V. V. Albert & P. Faist, eds.), 2022. https://errorcorrectionzoo.org/c/spacetime_block
BibTeX:
@incollection{eczoo_spacetime_block, title={Spacetime block code (STBC)}, booktitle={The Error Correction Zoo}, year={2022}, editor={Albert, Victor V. and Faist, Philippe}, url={https://errorcorrectionzoo.org/c/spacetime_block} }
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Cite as:

“Spacetime block code (STBC)”, The Error Correction Zoo (V. V. Albert & P. Faist, eds.), 2022. https://errorcorrectionzoo.org/c/spacetime_block

Github: https://github.com/errorcorrectionzoo/eczoo_data/edit/main/codes/classical/matrices/spacetime/spacetime_block.yml.